Principles behind the Growth Process of Thin Films

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CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND Deposition and characterization of the thin films discussed in Chapter 1 will require an understanding of many different tools and processes that are currently used in the semiconductor industry today. This chapter will cover the principles behind the growth process, the experimentation and the material properties. The equipment used for these processes will be discussed in depth as well.
2.1 Equipment The equipment used in the deposition of thin films can vary widely depending on what material is being grown. Different deposition techniques affect different material properties, such as: index of refraction, surface roughness, crystallinity, film quality and many others [VLSI, Seshan]. The two main techniques are physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). These techniques are used for different materials and different processes and CVD is the deposition technique this thesis focuses on. These techniques are implemented in different deposition systems with many different features and they have a wide range of applications. After the material is grown, the parameters of the material need to be characterized. This requires a complete understanding of the tools which are being operated. Different tools are necessary to determine the different important parameters of a material such as: reactive ion etchers, ellipsometers, atomic force microscopes, and x-ray diffraction spectroscopes. An inductively coupled plasma reactive ion

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