Pulmonary Infections

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II) Pulmonary infections:
1-Bacterial infection:
The bacterial infection in lung usually starts with the introduction of organisms into the airways. The routes by which bacteria can reach air spaces are inhalation of an aerosol, aspiration of respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions, or bacteraemic spread. The common bacilli include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, anaerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, enteric gram-negative bacilli, Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionelia spp.(32,33)
1.1-Tuberculosis (TB):
TB can involve various organs but the most common organ involved is lung. Primary pulmonary TB usually affects the lower lobes of lung or the anterior segment of an upper lobe. …show more content…

Most viral pneumonias are mild, but may be more severe or may be complicated by secondary bacterial infection.(32,35)
3-Fungal infection:
Fungi are eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular, or filamentous organisms, that are ubiquitous in nature. The incidence of fungal infections is increased over the last two decades mostly because of increase in immune-compromised patients. The incidence of fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients is between 5-42% and in bone marrow transplant recipients, the incidence ranges between 15-25% with Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and Candida being the most common fungal infections in these patients.(32,36)
The lung is one of the most commonly affected organs by opportunistic fungal infections. Majority of the lung infections begin by inhalation of aerosolized fungi from the surrounding environment. The fungi causing invasive pulmonary infection can be primary and opportunistic type of fungi. The primary fungal infection occurs in healthy immunocompetent individuals and the opportunistic fungal infections are common in immunocompromised …show more content…

The fungus is ubiquitous and is especially abundant in avium, particularly pigeon excreta. Although the disease occurs in apparently healthy individuals, it is more often seen as an opportunistic infection especially in patients with haematologic malignancies, AIDS or patients with defective cellular immunity. The pulmonary lesions include diffuse miliary lesions or patchy consolidation of mucoid nature.(32,36)
3.3- Candidiasis:
Candidiasis comprises of superficial, mucocutaneous, or systemic fungal infection caused by yeast like fungi of the genus Candida. Candida albicans is the most common type. Pulmonary involvement can be a)endobronchial/ primary pulmonary candidiasis acquired by aspiration of Candida spp. from oral cavity or upper respiratory tract, b)hematogenous pulmonary candidiasis and c)embolic pulmonary candidiasis in children with indwelling venous catheters.
4-Bacterial infections that resemble fungal infections:
Nocardiosis is a localized or disseminated infection caused by aerobic, filamentous, branching gram-positive bacteria. It is an uncommon infection in immunocompetent hosts. Pulmonary lesions may be large cavitating abscesses or diffuse fibrino-suppurative

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