A triumph was both a civil and religious ceremony in Imperial Rome; it was used to pay tribute to a military commander, or an imperator, for a successful foreign war campaign and to display the booty captured in the war. The ceremony was a parade showcasing the captured gold and silver and slaves from the war. The triumph followed a precise route through the streets of Rome, culminating in the march up the Via Sacra into the Roman Forum. To better celebrate a triumph, a triumphal arch was often erected to march underneath during the procession or as a commemoration to the triumph itself.
During this period the Romans focused their architectural abilities on creating very large and polarizing buildings. The Romans wanted the sheer size of their buildings to be intimidating. The Romans where terrific engineers and this showed in the completion of there great buildings. Many achievements in architecture were achieved by the Romans during the Pax Romana. One of them being the great Roman Coliseum, which is still standing today after 2000 years, serving as a monument to the size and strength of the Roman Empire. The Coliseum was a major achievement for the Romans and it held the Roman gladiatorial games, chariot races, and many other great events. Even to today the amazing Coliseum is the basis for every major sporting arena. The Romans not only built great stadiums but they also built what is know as the Roman Aqueducts, a huge step forward for Roman civilization. The Roman aqueducts were built initially for the purpose of supplying water to the public bath houses, but it soon became evident to use the aqueducts as the major water source in the city. The water that was brought to Rome through the aqueducts was also used in public drinking water fountains. Along with the great architecture of the Romans, art work was also at a high point during the Pax
The Parthenon of Athens which was considered to be one of the finest example of Greek architecture. (Doc 3) the Parthenon was a place for trade praise and prayer. Octavian Augustus was a powerful leader. Octavian was the first emperor of Rome. There are many statues of this powerful Roman man. (Doc 7) Roman architecture promoted different forms of Ancient Greek architecture and some more recent technologies including the arch and the dome to create a more current architectural approach. Its use of new materials, specifically concrete, was an important aspect. Roman architecture expanded throughout the Empire . Both the roman and Greek societies used these ideas for monuments, statues and other architectural buildings, though Greece came up with newer technologies that helped change roman architecture. The Greek people started the worldwide tradition known as the Olympic. The first Olympic Games were help in Greece, Olympia long ago. Although the Greeks started this tradition as a form of entertainment, the rest of the world picked up on this which eventually made the Olympics one of the most well known things around the world. There are Many statues that display the Olympic games are all around the world these statues are made and used to promote and display the Olympic games and where it originated from. (doc
The cultural of the Roman Empire was a melting pot of the religious and cultural influences of the conquered societies that had been assimilated into the Empire. The various religions and cultural practice created a complex pantheon of “gods.” Ever larger temples and statues were erected to bring glory and honor to cities and give honor the Emperor. Additionally, cities would host gladiatorial games to bring honor to the Emperor. These events and building projects were facilitated by those who sought to bring greater glory and honor upon themselves with Roman society.
Architecture comes with many significant meanings, including religious significance. The Pantheon, built from 118 to 125 CE in Rome, Italy, was a temple made to worship the Roman gods and goddesses. This temple is one of the most important buildings both in history and architecture, influencing many other monuments with its form, such as The Dome of the Rock. The Dome of the Rock, built from 687 to 692 CE, was the first great Islamic building. Located in Jerusalem, it is a shrine still very significant to many religions, such as Judaism and Christianity, today. Though not resembling each other in appearance, these buildings are extremely similar, in terms of religious meaning. The Pantheon and the Dome of the Rock, through their own distinctive form and similar location backgrounds, illuminate religion as the most important factor in each society, as these monuments symbolize a sense of unification throughout the city.
Throughout the history of Rome, from the monarchy to the late empire, religion had played a great role in it's society and was involved in almost every aspect of the life of the Roman citizen. It was common for each house to have it's own patron god/gods and ,on special occasions, the head of the house would make a sacrifice to the personal gods of the family. Also, great festivals were usually held in honor of certain gods and would include spectacles like chariot races and Gladiatorial fights.
Jupiter was the God of all Roman Gods. He played many roles in Roman society and religion. Until the Romans were condemned and Rome fell, nobody, not even other gods could save him and his kingdom from demise. The first citizens of what would be Rome believed that they were watched over by the spirits of their ancestors. These spirits then became a triad of gods led by Jupiter. The Gods were worshipped throughout Italy, the Middle East, and Northern Africa. The most common and well known temples are the Capitoleum vetus in Tunisia, the Baalbeck also known as the Heliopolis, located in North Eastern Lebanon, and the Jupiter Stator which its location is unknown. The Jupiter Stator was built by Quintus Cacilus Matellus Macedonia after the 3rd
14 As Stamper argues, this is a significant aspect of portraying authority when one an emperor uses precedent of Rome’s founding 15 and this is shown by Augustus in commemorating the temple to Julius Caesar as a sign of celebrating his own triumph. The Temple of Julius Caesar sat on an elevated podium with rostra in front of the colonnade where prows of the ships captured from the Battle at Actium were hung.16 Similarly, the public rostra erected at the opposite site of the Forum also consist of captures obtained from the Battle of Actium and these rostra that faced each other act as a reminder of the glories of the old Republic and the achievements of the restored Rome under its new leader, Augustus.17 To reflect more of the idea of power, Augustus uses different architectural elements to deliver them. Similar to the nearby Temple of Castor and Pollux erected during the Republic, the Temple of Julius Caesar had a pycnostyle composition that consisted of six closely arranged columns with
Triumphs were a very distinguished ceremony in Ancient Roman culture. Receiving a triumph was considered a great honour for Roman generals. They generals would get drawn in a chariot. The plunder he had won would follow him, as well as people he had taken captive. The general’s troops would also follow him through the streets until he arrived at the Temple of Jupiter where he offered a sacrifice to the god. Throughout modern history, many rulers looked back at Rome at how they celebrated their victories. Other monarchs, dynasts, and autocrats wanted to celebrate as the Romans did. Even Napoleon imitated a Roman triumph when he carried what he had taken
The Temple of Athena Nike was built where it is for various strategic and religious reasons. Pericles rebuilt it as part of an effort to increase morale and renew culture during wartime. It was built over a previous temple to Athena, which was used for similar things. Utilized continuously by Bronze Age Greeks, the temple also served as a military base. References to Nike, the goddess of victory, also strengthened the luck associated with this structure and, therefore, its appeal as a fort. It also was arranged to face an altar to the east. Furthermore, the location affected the use of stone, as the natural shapes and quality of local marble inspired the Doric and Ionic orders. Thus, the Ancient Greeks had reasons for placing the Temple of Athena Nike where it still stands today. (Ancient-Greece.org)(Reidel, Brown.edu)
Do you know the famous francs triumphal arch? Does it is the first arch in the world? The answer is no, the arch of Titus was the first type of trichpheal arch around the world. This gate was built in the 81CE, which in the Roman time. When Titus triumphal in 81 CE, only two years after becoming emperor, his youngster brother. Domitian succeeded him. Domitian erected an arch in Titus’s honor on the sacred way leading into the Republican Forum Romanum. One famous Roman artist created this sculpture, even though we don’t know his name. This arch didn’t celebrate only military victories. This arch was also built for commemorating the new king’s brother—Titus who was died in a young age. This artwork has a long history which was the first of triumphal arch. We will find the the charm of the arch and what is behind it.
Agrippa, Augustus’ right-hand man, constructed this building as a temple to all the gods; however, a fire destroyed this temple in 80 CE and so Domitian built the reconstruction. The Pantheon we are familiar with has a significantly different design than the original one, and this is why this specific temple is so dislike to the rest of the Roman temples. Before it was burnt, the Pantheon stood in a podium at the end of a large rectangular court. The surroundings of this temple have changed in order to provide a unique experience to its visitors. For example, the temple has en enormous dome with a 27-foot oculus that opens to the sky. This oculus lets a shaft of light come through creating an emphasis wherever the reflection is. Visitors were driven nowhere but to the light at the center of the dome. This building was built for greeting foreign embassies, adjudicating disputes and hold court (Janson). Moreover, the Pantheon is extraordinary because of the potential and strength of concrete. Some other materials used in the process of building the temple include travertine, tufa, brick, and pumice. These materials varied in order to reduce its weight. The colored marble on the wall symbolized imperial authority. The sphere is though to symbolize eternity and perfection and the bronze panels symbolized a starry night sky.
The Ides, which is the midpoint of the month, with a full moon, was sacred to Jupiter. This was because the Romans believed that the full moon was a heavenly light, representing Jupiter’s presence. On the Ides, a white lamb was led to the Capitoline Citadel, and was sacrificed to him.
As the saying goes “Rome wasn’t built in a day,” however long it took to build the capital, the days, months, years, centuries of work can be viewed as a long lasting landmark which paved the way for new and challenging architecture to come (How Roman architecture influenced modern architecture [sa]). According to Tony Rook (2013: [sp] ch.2) the typical Roman temple shows the Etruscan tradition combined with the Greek one. Although some of their premature concepts were acquired from the ancient Greeks and Egyptians, Roman architects transformed the body of architecture for all time to come, offering buildings and structures that has never been before, along the side of public buildings and infrastructure that could be used by
There are seven most remarkable structures of ancient times and I’m going to write about four out of the seven. The statue of Zeus, which was created in 432 B.C., by Phidius, the lighthouse Of Alexandria that was created by Sostratus in 290 B.C. and took 20 years to complete. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus that was first created in 800 B.C. by Croesus and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus that was built around 353 and 350 B.C. These are only four out of the seven wonders I will be writing about who commissioned and created each one of them. How they were built, where they were located, when was it constructed, why they were considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and what happened to them.