November 24, 2015
TA – Ginny Reynolds, Wednesday 5pm
The Religious Significance the Pantheon and the Dome of the Rock Convey
Architecture comes with many significant meanings, including religious significance. The Pantheon, built from 118 to 125 CE in Rome, Italy, was a temple made to worship the Roman gods and goddesses. This temple is one of the most important buildings both in history and architecture, influencing many other monuments with its form, such as The Dome of the Rock. The Dome of the Rock, built from 687 to 692 CE, was the first great Islamic building. Located in Jerusalem, it is a shrine still very significant to many religions, such as Judaism and Christianity, today. Though not resembling each other in appearance, these buildings are extremely similar, in terms of religious meaning. The Pantheon and the Dome of the Rock, through their own distinctive form and similar location backgrounds, illuminate religion as the most important factor in each society, as these monuments symbolize a sense of unification throughout the city. The Dome of the Rock and the Pantheon are constructed similarly. The Dome of the Rock was even influenced by the Pantheon, built on a domed-central plan structure. While the two buildings look different in appearance, they have similar forms. They both contain geometric structures. In the front, the Pantheon has a porch, with a triangular top. Behind this porch is a cylinder base with a hemispherical dome
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Monuments such as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and San Vitale in Ravenna, perform a great importance in Byzantine and Islamic architecture. Both of these structures did not exclusively represent the main place of worship, but most importantly as a symbol of achievement and growth within the current times of construction. Starting in 524, under the influence of Orthodox bishop Ecclesius, the development of San Vitale was to represent the achievements of the emperor Justinian. Julius Argentarius was the sponsor for this structure and it was dedicated by Bishop Maximian in 547. The Dome of the Rock is built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem in 692 with the help of Abd al-Malik with the suspected intention to symbolize Islams influence in
Christianity and Islam are religions are two of world’s most widespread religions. Both religions when founded were not accepted by the people of that time and they have faced great resistance. Early Islamic art and early Christian art both are historically important as both are similar in some ways. The most earliest architecture and first such structure from the Muslims is the Dome of the Rock located in Jerusalem. When the Muslims conquered the city of Jerusalem in they needed a place (Mosque) to worship and offer their prayers in congregation. At the same time they also wanted to build a monument that would show the success of Muslims and their religion Islam. Similarly, Christians used to build their
Religion has played a huge role in the history of the world of architecture. We can get a deeper look in the minds and attitudes of people when we look at their beliefs – specifically their religion. But even though religion played a huge role in the approach to architecture, the pursuit of beauty and power can also explain to us the approaches and the outlooks of those who built or designed buildings from the ancient world.
An easily made mixture of sand and rock, it was much lighter than marble, just as durable, and could easily be worked to form different configurations. This progression in material, and craftsmanship enabled the Romans to make the dome which still can be seen today. However, they did not stray too far from the Greek innovations; they also included Corinthian columns made from granite as part of the façade. The porch on the Pantheon has the same character as the Parthenon; it uses the columns to assist in holding up the porch roof. The Parthenon also used columns, called Doric which was not just the style of columns, but also represented an architecture design that gave the standing columns a unique look. Using the post and lintel system, they distributed the weight of the massive roof evenly. They were also used more extensively throughout the Parthenon, using an ingenious ratio of 4:9 which gives it a sense of harmony and balance. One difference they do portray is the way light enters inside the structures. With the Parthenon having columns that surrounded the entire structure, light was able to freely enter without obstructions. The Pantheon light source, other than the light that enters through the front entrance, is by a hole that is in the roof that is approximately twenty-seven feet in size. However, we
Essentially unchanged for more than thirteen centuries, the Dome of the Rock remains one of the world's most beautiful and enduring architectural treasures. Adorned with its magnificent gold dome and elaborate quranic inscriptions, the structure intimately represents the world's second largest religion in a city historically associated with the three Semitic faiths. Representation, however, is not the only effect of this site. Despite its intended purpose, the Dome of the Rock inherently stands as the focal center of a millennium-old religious controversy. Located on what is essentially the world's holiest site (obviously a speculative assertion) and inscribed with proclamations of Islamic religious superiority, the Dome symbolizes far
The structural similarity between the two buildings is the large domes, which are vital point of their construction. The materials used in the concrete of the dome also varies. At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus lightens the load. Hagia Sophia is an innovative hybrid of longitudinal and central architectural planning. The building is clearly dominated by the hovering form of its gigantic dome. Its idiosyncratic mixture of basilica and rotunda precludes a ring of masonry underneath the dome to provide support around its circumference, the main dome of Hagia Sophia rests instead on four pendentives that connect the base of the dome with the huge supporting piers at the four corners of the square area beneath it. The origin of the dome on pendentive is obscure, but its large-scale use at Hagia Sophia
Pantheon located in Rome, Italy is the most well conserved architectural structure of the Roman period. Pantheon, initially a roman sanctuary worked to committed to every one of the divine beings, however in 609AD., it was transformed into a congregation and stays as it. Initially worked by Agrippa around 27BC under Augustus' lead however it was caught fire during 80D, under Emperor Domitian's care then build it again, yet was struck by lightning and burned down again in 110AD. The present Pantheon was worked in 120AD and finished by Emperor Hadrian alongside Apollodorus of Damascus. (Hannah and Magli 2011)
From the outside of the Pantheon the dome seems shallow and insignificant, said to be purposely done not to ruin the "suprise" of the interior (Gilbert 379). It is only when viewing the inside that one can truly appreciate the amazing architectural design and workmanship of this building. Another remarkable attribute of this temple to the gods is that it is still in use today with much of the original materials intact. The columns, the marble paneled walls, the floor, and the two enormous bronze doors are all originals, making the Pantheon the best preserved surviving Roman structure. The Panthenon can be viewed at the following site which shows many pictures of the interior and exterior of this truly remarkle building: http://www.kent.wednet.edu/curriculum/soc_studies/rome/Pantheon.html
The Pantheon is an iconic part of architecture, particularly in the mediterranean. Constructed in Imperial Rome, the Pantheon was an incredible piece that forever influenced the basics of architecture. A similar piece, contemporary to the Pantheon, would be the Dome of the Rock. Found in Jerusalem, the Umayyad caliph built the shrine in the seventh century to serve a function as an Islamic shrine. Being the oldest extant Islamic monument known to man, the Dome of the Rock is sacred to both the Muslim and jewish religions.While being in completely different cultures, the Pantheon and the Dome of the Rock share numerous similarities varying from their functionality to the characteristic style of the domes.
However, they do hold their key differences in their structures in that The Cathedral of Notre Dame requires extra supports not just inside the structure, but outside as well. The Cathedral of Notre Dame has such thing called flying buttress, it is an archway like structure that holds on to most of the structure of the cathedral (“Notre-Dame de Paris,” 2017, para. 3). Dome of The Rock on the other hand, does not require any external support due to the shape of the structure. Cathedral of Notre Dame is in a shape of a basilica (cross like shape), but Dome of the Rock’s main structure is octagonally shaped, which is much more stable shape compare to the thin basilica shape of the cathedral (“Dome of the Rock,” 2017, para. 2). As mentioned earlier, both monuments hold religious items inside their respectable building. To show off their assets, both structures have ambulatories that lead the audience toward the objects. Around the Rock, architectures constructed ambulatories around the rock for the audience to look while not disturbing the object (Elizabeth Macaulay-Lewis, n.d.,
The Pantheon deduces its name from Greek word meaning “All the gods of a religion”. The Pantheon was originally constructed as a famous temple in Rome which was devoted to all the gods of Ancient Rome. It is the best preserved building from Ancient Rome and was completed by 125 CE. Its magnificent dome is a living testimony to the genius of the Roman architects and as the building still remain undamaged, it offers a unique chance for the modern boulevardier to step back 2000 years and experience the glory that was Rome.
Pantheon and Hagia Sophia Pantheon and Hagia Sophia are two extremely outstanding architectural pieces of their times. They have been built according to the traditions of those particular times. The materials used to built these buildings and the purpose for which they were used are all very important aspects and have been briefly covered in this report. Pantheon The statesman Agrippa built pantheon in 27 B.C. Then it was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian. The Pantheon is remarkable for its size, its construction, and its design. The dome was the largest built until modern times. The present structure was probably originally built as a temple for all the pagan gods. We do hear of it as being a law-court and a reception area for
Agrippa, Augustus’ right-hand man, constructed this building as a temple to all the gods; however, a fire destroyed this temple in 80 CE and so Domitian built the reconstruction. The Pantheon we are familiar with has a significantly different design than the original one, and this is why this specific temple is so dislike to the rest of the Roman temples. Before it was burnt, the Pantheon stood in a podium at the end of a large rectangular court. The surroundings of this temple have changed in order to provide a unique experience to its visitors. For example, the temple has en enormous dome with a 27-foot oculus that opens to the sky. This oculus lets a shaft of light come through creating an emphasis wherever the reflection is. Visitors were driven nowhere but to the light at the center of the dome. This building was built for greeting foreign embassies, adjudicating disputes and hold court (Janson). Moreover, the Pantheon is extraordinary because of the potential and strength of concrete. Some other materials used in the process of building the temple include travertine, tufa, brick, and pumice. These materials varied in order to reduce its weight. The colored marble on the wall symbolized imperial authority. The sphere is though to symbolize eternity and perfection and the bronze panels symbolized a starry night sky.
The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, completed in 126 AD. Currently a state property, it is now a Roman Catholic Church. As one of Rome’s most well preserved ancient buildings, it has had continuous use through the ages. This is likely due to the fact that it was converted from a temple to a church early on, saving it from sacking and destruction. At its’ inception, it is believed to have been a temple to numerous Roman deities. (“Pantheon, n.d.) The name pantheon refers to a temple dedicated to all the gods. (Merriam Webster, n.d.) The building is made up of a portico, or porch, and a rectangular vestibule that connects the porch to a rotunda. The rotunda features an oculus that provides light as well as ventilation. During rain and storms, any water entering the uncovered oculus runs off into built-in drains still functioning from their original construction. The dome’s inner design is comprised of intersecting arches and coffers. Likely symbolic, these were built in multiples of eight,