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The endocrinology of reproduction is vital reproductive machineries that drive reproductive processes. This study was designed using rabbits as animal model to assess impact of Moringa oliefera on female fertility by determining the status of major reproductive hormones of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis. Serum LH, FSH progesterone, oestradiol and prolactin are the basic essential reproductive endocrinal biochemical biomarkers for the investigation of fertility and the functionality of reproductive axis (hypothalamic/pituitary/gonadal axis) (Harris and Naftolinf., 1970) in female animals. The concentration of FSH influences the number of follicles that are (Ca´rdenas and Pope 2013).
The results of this …show more content…
This is in line with Joshi and Joshi (1992) who reported that anti fertility herbs especially those used as contraceptives interferes with pituitary gonadotropin secretions which affects the functionality of ovary by direct inhabiting ovulation and interference with fertilization, implantation and gestation or pregnancy. However, the mechanism of action is still not very clear. The phyto-compounds in the test plant responsible for the observed dose related reduction of key reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and oestradial) may be related to flavonoids, glucosinolates, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and cinnamates which was reported to as effective agent in plants use for abortion ((Tarafder , 1982; Nath et al., 1992; 1997; Amaglo et al. 2010; Coppin et al. 2013; Torres-Castillo et al., 2013). These compounds may be acting alone or in synergism to each other to influence negatively reproductive axis to precipitate reduction in FSH, LH and oestrogen concentration observed in this study. Farooq et al. (2012) reported that Moringa oliefera have anti-fertility activity. Also, Prakash, et al., (1987) in their study with aqueous extract of the root and bark of Moringar olieferas observed post-coital anti-fertility effect in rat and also induced fetal resorption at late pregnancy. In another study analysing anti reproductive potential of folk medicinal plants, Moringa oliefera leaf extracts were found to be 100% abortive with doses equivalent to 175 mg/kg of
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In addition, rural women relied on underground networks of communication to spread abortifacient information by word of mouth (Mohr p. 107). To induce miscarriages, women employed Folk and Native American herbal abortifacients. The following herbs were most frequently recommended: black hellebore, savin, aloe, calomel, horehound, madder root, Spanish fly, jalap, scammony, bitter apple, myrrh, Seneca snakeroot, and black cohosh (Mohr p. 8-12).
The hormones that the ovaries produce are estrogen and progesterone, which are mandatory for healthy reproduction. Also the hormone androgen plays a role in the regulation of normal ovarian function. Androgen is the male hormone but it is very important in a woman’s reproductive health. Androgen becomes a problem in the woman when too much is produced and stops ovulation. A woman is born with all the eggs she will ever have for the rest of her life. At the time of ovulation, the egg develops and is called a follicle. In those follicles, a small amount of fluid is starting to gather. If the egg goes into full maturity and ovulation happens, the follicle will become enlarged. Each month during the normal ovarian cycle some follicles will begin to develop but never make it to ovulation.
A plant called silphium was used effectively as a birth control device until its extinction in the 4th century AD. Another plant that is considered highly effective to the contraception of children is Queen Anne’s Lace. This plant was considered an oral contraceptive dating back 2000 years ago. In the late 1980s, scientists that were experimenting with Queen Anne’s Lace, noticed that the mice they fed the plant to had blocked the production of progesterone and inhibited fetal and ovarian growth. This plant is still used today as a morning-after contraceptive for women in rural areas when they drink the seeds of the plant with a glass of water.
Fertility support is a scientific formulation of 25 vitamin & minerals. This scientifically designed formula helps in maintaining (both men & women) health and strength. This formula comprises of vitamins, minerals and extract of some important herbs. Important vitamins like thiamine (vitamin B1), B6 and B12 and pantothenic acid contributes to normal cognitive function. A healthy immune system is important to good health. Vitamin D and copper contribute to normal function of immune system. Vitamin D is also included to work in harmony with the calcium. Vitamin D contributes to normal absorption and utilization to calcium. Fertility support provides zinc which contributes to normal maintenance & reproduction of testosterone levels in the blood.
The effect of phyto-oestrogens has also been sometimes described as negative. The effect of phyto-oestrogens on infertility was first noticed in the 1940s in Australia when sheep grazing on pasture composed of clover of the Trifolium species developed large scale infertility (Sunita and Pattanayak, 2011). Clovers of these species are rich in the isoflavone formononetin, which was found to be the cause of the large-scale infertility by overstimulation of oestrogen receptors, and is converted to daidzein in the rumen by bacterial fermentation (Sunita and Pattanayak, 2011).
During vitellogenesis, the enzyme aromatase converts a portion of the available T into estradiol-17β (E2). However, as ovarian maturation approaches, a switch to GTH-II synthesis in the pituitary gland results in a decline of T and E2 synthesis, and a concomitant surge in the production of maturational progestogens [8,9]. Steroid levels are generally low during the non-reproductive period, but increase gradually throughout gametogenesis and decline abruptly thereafter. The putative predominance of T, 11-KT and E2 in initiating and regulating seasonal reproductive events, these steroids are also the most intensively studied steroids in relation to the initiation and regulation of sex change. Corticosteroids are mainly synthesized in the interrenal tissue, recent studies have shown that female and male gonads (ovary, testis, and seminal vesicle) may have also the capacity to produce main corticosteroids, enzymes responsible for their synthesis and supports that gonadal corticosteroidogenesis [12, 13,
The oldest recorded abortion was found in the Eber’s Papyrus in Egypt around 1550 BCE (Rash & Farazaneh, 2008). The ancient medical document prescribed the use of a plant-based tampon coated with honey and crushed dates to induce early labor (Manning, 2013). Ancient Chinese medical records dating back to 500 B.C.E document the number of Chinese royal concubines who’ve had abortions, to add, mercury was use to induce an abortions (Fox, 2014) . In ancient Greece, Hippocrates, the father of Western medicine prescribed abortions to his women patients; in medieval Europe herbal remedies such as pennyroyal, sage, savory, and rue was used by midwives to stimulate the uterus in order to bring about early
The levels of FSH and LH are important in determining the ovarian-axis problems. If history and physical examination findings are suggestive of hyperandrogenism, androgen testings which include testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, and 17-OH progesterone to determine the organ of cause (e.g.: adrenal gland or ovary) are helpful. History and examination suggestive of hyperprolactinaemia or thyroid disorders require evaluation of the levels of prolactin and thyroid function.
Bovine infertility is a major economic issue in the dairy industry. Several factors contribute to this problem, including anovulation (inability to ovulate a fertilizable egg). Our hypothesis is that decrease of ovarian immune cells, specifically macrophages, will lower macrophage-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. VEGF promotes vascular development important to follicular development, ovulation and corpus luteum formation, all of which are important to successful reproduction. Female rats were divided into 2 groups (n=3): one treated with dexamethasone (DEX), an immunosuppressant steroid, and the other an untreated control. Frozen histological sections of each ovary were reacted with monoclonal antibodies for macrophages
Conception W is a female fertility support formula that uses a unique blend of natural herbs to promote pregnancy. Each order of Conception W comes with a month’s supply of capsules that help reduce stress and promote hormonal balance, thus aiding reproductive health. The ingredients found in Conception W have helped increase fertility for thousands of years, and we have compiled a formula with known effectiveness. In addition to a fertility aid, the ingredients found in Conception W aid in decreasing menstrual pain and help alleviate mood swings that can be associated with PMS. Why does Conception W work? It works by naturally regulating female hormone levels and assists with maintaining a regular menstrual cycle. With a known and regular
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of ram’s ration with boron on the reproductive activity and mineral metabolism.
Before safe and effective contraception was developed women in ancient times used their own forms of barriers to prevent pregnancy. These included potions, charms, herbal recipes, and chants. These recipes were mostly made of harsh materials that killed many women trying to control their fertility. ”Later birth control developments were based on more accurate information concerning conception” says essayempire.com.
Lead researcher Soghra Bahmanpour PhD found that the high levels of estradiol and flavonoid components increase sperm count and motility. In addition, dates promote an increase in male testes size and weight.
Abstract: The pre- and post- treatments effects of Habak, one of Mentha longifolia subspecies, as one of the famous folk medicine was studied in mouse bone-marrow cells in contrary to the mutagenicity of cyclophosphamide (CP). Male Balb/C mice were pre- and post-treated orally with aqueous extract of Habak at variable concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt) for 24h and 48h respectively. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with CP for 24h pre- and post-treatment with Habak. Assessment of cell viability of animals treated with Habak aqueous extract and/or CP was performed using trypan blue exclusion assay. Investigating the protective effects of pre- and post-treatments with Habak aqueous extract on genotoxicity of CP were evaluated with chromosome aberrations and DNA damage using the comet assay. Cell viability of mice bone-marrow cells was activated with the low and medium concentrations of Habak, however, the highest concentration induced cytotoxicity significantly. When animals treated with Habak prior to CP, the chromosome aberrations were reserved highly significant in comparison with animals injected with CP. Also, Habak reduced the chromosome abnormalities induced by CP when mice pre-treated with CP. The efficacy of Habak was recorded when it reduced DNA damage induced by pre- and post-treatment with CP as assessed with percentage of DNA damage, tail length and tail moment ratio. In conclusion, the whole aqueous extract of Habak has the ability to reduce the