Research questions are formulated in a study to inquire about variables, both independent and dependent variables, and the relationship between them. Research questions are categorized into two, that is, qualitative and quantitative research questions. Qualitative questions are used in qualitative research like case studies, surveys and action research where the approach is non-numerical and analyses special phenomena that occur in nature. Quantitative research on the other hand is more of a systematic approach with measurable numerical quantities that go through analysis to prove a hypothesis. Finally, the research hypothesis is either approved or disapproved with regards to the results of the analysis (Laureate Online Education B.V.
This paper will review different styles of research design along with how different variables within research can be measured.
When discussing the research question and hypothesis, one might interrelate these two concepts when in fact these terms differ from one another. The research question guides the research by creating a question that pertains to a particular topic one might be interested in gaining more knowledge in that particular area (L. Sabol, personal communication, April, 2016). Research questions can come from values, theories, or previous research (L. Sabol, personal communication, April, 2016). The research question within the article that the researcher wanted to examine is, “To what extent do pre-college characteristics and the academic performance of Black male student-athletes differ from their student-athlete peers?”(Horton, 2015, p. 289). With this research question the author Horton (2015), is attempting to figure out whether there is a relationship between Black male college student
Confounding variables were vastly differing, but usually fell within a couple of generalizable groups. Some confounding variables were population based being that the size was too small, too healthy, the population geographical background was not diverse enough for accurate results, and the level of knowledge of the test population was not representative of the public. One big confounding variable that I did see was that in some of these studies the variables were too controlled, the randomization was not double blinded leading to research influenced bias, and the results lacked generalizability. However, for some of these areas studied in this presentation, the research was primary research and there was not a vast amount of previously done studies to contribute to a cohort type of study.
1. A formal statement that there is an absence of relationship between variables when tested by a researcher is called: (Points : 1)
Researches are always carried out with the purpose of answering questions that are there, to ascertain a particular phenomenon or to prove a concept. Different researchers have different reasons for carrying out their research and this is encourage because the knowledge that is gained can be used by the others in improving that research or better understanding what the situation is. This paper tries to look at what the researchers were after and at the same trying to see the challenges they faced and their limitations. It basically tries to understand why the researchers chose the research design that has been used in the research.
In this assignment students are required to clearly state and introduce their research topic, indicates clearly the two variables of interest, and present the theoretical framework with key variables. The task is also requesting that learners explained the following components linked to their selected subject: the background of the problem, the need for study, and provide the educational and practical significances of the proposed research.
In order to complete the study, research questions were developed with specific variables in order to determine the results
The research design and methods of a study are constructed based on identifying the research problem, developing the theoretical framework, and reviewing the literature (Merriam, 2009). However, the heart of any research design, according to Maxwell (2013), is the research questions. The research questions help to focus the study and influence the choice of research design and methods for data collection. “More than any other aspect of your design, your research questions will have an influence on, and should be responsive to, every other part of your study” (Maxwell, 2013, p. 73).
Some examples are Confounding bias, Selection bias, and an Information bias. A confounding bias refers to a situation in which the effect or association between an exposure and outcome is distorted by the presence of another variable. (Alcohol and smoking)A selection bias refers to two groups being compared differs systematically. That occurs when there are differences in the characteristics between those who are selected for a study and those who are not selected, and where those characteristics are related to either the exposure or outcome under investigation. An information bias result from systematic differences in the way data on exposure or outcome are obtained from the various study groups.
Below are the research questions and a main hypothesis that the writer posed about relationship among the study variables.
(Identify the independent and dependent variables for each objective. What confounding variable(s) was(were) controlled by statistical methods in Tables 2, 3, and 4? 10%)
Research questions and hypothesis are tools used in similar ways for different research methods. Both
A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
The research design used in this study was correlational. The correlational design allows the determination of existence or degree of relationship between two variables. In this study gender was used as the nominal independent variable and hours spent in in Pinterest weekly was the dependent variable. The correlational research method was chosen because it allows relevant evidence to be collected and the data collected is directly related to the research question. This type of study manages variations, identifies relationships between variables, and produces answer to the research question. The purpose of the research had to reflect on the research design in order to reveal whether or not there was a statistical significance, in this case