Validity: Critical Thinking About A Research Project

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A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper. It is significant to have validity in research. Validity is the best approximation of the truth of a given
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Scales can be used as stand-alone instrument but can also be integrated into a larger survey. A Likert scale method to gather the data will be utilized to summarize the results of the participants in the study. The respondents will check items with which they agree. I prefer this scale method because is easy to use and participants only have to respond from a 1 to 5 scale (1-Strongly disagree, 2-Disagree, 3-Undecided, 4-Agree, 5-Strongly disagree).
Measurement is the process of observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort. There are four major levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. The nominal scale places people, events, perceptions, etc. into categories based on some common trait. It captures information about whether the object belongs or does not belong to a category. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used with the nominal scale because it requires that some category is compared to at least one other category; a perfect example is male vs. female. Ordinal scale ranks data from highest to lowest and it also contains all of the information captured in the nominal scale. The ordinal scale gives you some idea of where the data lies in relation to each other. However, some data from ordinal level information is loss because it ranks from highest to lowest and the comparison in between is not compared. The interval scale indicates the distance one object is
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