Second Trimester Miscarriage Literature Review

Decent Essays

.1 Introduction
The Literature Review discussed in this chapter commences with a discussion on the prevalence of second trimester miscarriage, risk factors associated with second trimester miscarriage and hospital care during miscarriage. Next the theoretical approaches that have informed our thinking on grief and bereavement are discussed; such as the contemporary theories of grief and bereavement (Stroebe and Schut 1999; Worden, 2009) while also drawing on the earlier work of Freud (1925), Bowlby (1980) and Parkes (1972). The psychological aspects of pregnancy loss and fathers’ experiences of miscarriage and are then discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the literature in relation to health care professionals’ experiences …show more content…

The databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL plus (EBSCO), EMBASE (Elsevier) and filtered for English language only with no time restriction. A combination of the key words listed below was used as part of the search strategy. Medical care which included the following key words: second trimester miscarriage, late miscarriage, spontaneous abortion, mid trimester loss, medical care, treatments, pain relief or analgesia, hospital care. theories of grief and loss which included the following key words; grief, bereavement, theories, models. Parents’ experiences of perinatal loss which included the following key words: mothers’ experiences, fathers’ experiences and parents’ experiences of perinatal loss, second trimester miscarriage, miscarriage, still birth, neonatal death and hospital …show more content…

The rate of second trimester miscarriage is estimated at 1-2% of recognised pregnancies (Edlow et al., 2007, Wyatt et al., 2005). Blohm et al. (2008) found that miscarriage occurred in 12% of all pregnancies and one quarter of women who had been pregnant by 39 years of age had suffered at least one miscarriage. Research with a sample of 5806 women by Hure et al. (2012) found a miscarriage rate of 25 per 100 live births. The majority of miscarriages take place during the first trimester of pregnancy (HSE, 2014). Westin et al. (2007) found that in low risk women, the risk of pregnancy loss in the second trimester was 0.5%. A recent study conducted in Cork found that the rate of pregnancy loss between 14-24 weeks was approximately 0.5% (Morris et al., 2014). A more recent study conducted in a large Dublin maternity hospital reported a rate of second trimester pregnancy loss of 0.8% (Cullen et al., 2016).
2.4 Risk factors associated with second trimester miscarriage
While there is a dearth of research examining risk factors specifically for second trimester miscarriage there are a number of research studies examining risk factors for miscarriage, recurrent miscarriages and stillbirths. Several risk factors have been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and or stillbirth; these include increased maternal age, obesity, smoking, caffeine

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