Section{Secure Cloud Computation: Threats, Requirements

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section{Secure Cloud Computation: Threats, Requirements and Efficiency}
In this section, one common system architecture of outsourcing computation is firstly proposed. Then, we demonstrate typical security threats and corresponding security requirements. After that, some functionally work related to secure outsourcing are discussed. The concept of the balance between security and efficiency is briefly talked at the end of the section. subsection{System Architectures for Outsourcing Computation }
A common secure computing outsourcing architecture is as illustrated in Figure~ ef{fig:one}.\ egin{figure} centerline{includegraphics[width=80mm]{abst}} caption{A hierarchy of computation abstraction levels.} label{fig:one} end{figure}
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In some application scenarios, the system architecture can be largely diversified, such as the collaborative outsourced data mining with multi-owner [Secure Nearest Neighbor Revisited] and the bioinformatic data aggregation and computation on cloud servers. [Secure and Verifiable Outsourcing of Large-Scale Biometrics Computations] More details for the variants of system architecture will be discussed in Section 6.

subsection{Security Threats in Data Outsourcing}
Though the architecture of cloud computation brings about the mitigation or negation of current security threats for users, such as the risk of leaking sensitive information at a lost or stolen laptop, new vulnerabilities and challenges are introduced. [Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing] The threats to information assets residing in the cloud, including the outsourced data (input) and its corresponding solution (output), can generally be on extit{confidentiality} given the context of cloud computation. The data that resides in the cloud is out of control of cloud user. It has to be satisfied that only authorized party can access the sensitive data, while other party

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