Should Coffee Be Benefit Or Harm? Health?

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xStatement of Position
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages all over the world. Many people love the smell and taste of coffee, and rely on it to help them invigorate their brains and keep refreshed. However, whether coffee is benefit or harm to health is a controversial topic that draws people’s attention all the time. As a result of coffee’s popularity, even small health effects may cause significant public health consequences. More and more studies focus on coffee consumption in connection with all-cause and cause-specific mortality but they reach different conclusions. Several studies have found a positive association between higher levels of coffee consumption and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality (LeGrady et al,
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Between 1971 and 2003, in total of 45,000 participants aged from 20 to 87 years old joined in the 17-year median follow-up. They were asked to finish a questionnaire about personal and family medical history and lifestyle habits. They also underwent a baseline physical examination at the Cooper Clinic. Based on that, researchers collected data including coffee consumption, blood chemistry analysis, anthropometry and blood pressure. All the participants were observed for mortality from the day to receive examination to the date of death or December 31, 2003. Through the National Death Index or by accessing the death certificates in the decedents’ states of residence, all-cause mortality and CVD mortality were identified. (Liu et al, 1067) However, the research did not provide the content of questionnaire and in which way these samples were chosen.
Liu and his colleagues used baseline coffee consumption categories (0, 1 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, 22 to 28 cups per week) and sex status to estimate baseline characteristics of the population. Appling Cox proportional hazards regression models, they calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality associated with coffee consumption. The assumptions of proportional hazards were tested by Martingale-based residuals, and the observed results satisfied the assumptions. With the same
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