Social Aggression : Interpersonal Relationships, Social Goals, And Self Image

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Social aggression harms one’s interpersonal relationships, social goals, and self-image. As Crick, Bigbee and Howes’s survey (1996, as cited in Martins & Wilsons, 2012) showed, the social aggression is more frequently used among girls, since it can effectively damage girls’ social goals. Two theoretical explanations are provided for social aggression: social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2009, as cited in Martins & Wilsons, 2012) and information processing theory (Huesmann, 1998, as cited in Martins & Wilsons, 2012). Social cognitive theory reveals that observation of social interactions and media displays can contribute to one’s attainment of knowledge. Therefore, when children watch violent scenes on television, they may mimic those aggressive behaviors in real life. Information processing theory states that once the information from the environment is learned, it can be retrieved and emphasized through responses to social situations. In this way, the violent behaviors children learned through television are encoded into memory and normalized through everyday use. Media violence is considered as one of the causes of social aggression. Huesmann’s (2003, as cited in Martins & Wilsons, 2012), Ostrov’s (2006, as cited in Martins & Wilsons, 2012) and Kuntsche’s (2006, as cited in Martins & Wilsons, 2012) studies have shown that observation of televised violence can increase female’s social aggression and male’s physical abuse. However, all of the studies do not provide evidence
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