I have chosen to research into the social and economical factors that may influence a youth’s likelihood to engage in delinquency as I believe that understanding the factors underpinning youth offending may help to reduce youth crime levels, as preventive measures can be aimed at the distinct root causes recognised. I have chosen to particularly look at the link between the social factor of education in terms of low school attainment and the wider effect on the economy through looking at youth unemployment and offending. I believe these social and economical factors are inextricably linked therefore I hypothesise that low school attainment leads to increases in youth crime levels due to youths not acquiring the necessary skills to allow a successful entrance to the labour market.
In carrying out this literature review I have engaged in secondary research in order to provide me with significant qualitative and quantitative data on this given topic. I collected a range of sources through library searches where I aimed to research previous studies through the use of the internet to access online resources, books and journals. Upon doing so I found a few books that encompassed the social and economical factors I specifically chose to review although I found many websites that had information on the social & economical factors that may affect delinquency.
Education & Low school attainment:
All sources reviewed agreed that there is a correlation
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The relationship between age and delinquency is evidence by an agreement between all three data sources, which show that crimes peak during mid to late adolescence. Rates for property crime peak in mid to
Based on the social disorganization theory; Shaw and McKay account for high crime begins with poverty, low socioeconomic status and the inability to “control the teenage population,” (Sampson, 2016). Shaw and McKay also knew that within the community, delinquency was a trait that was picked-up by and from other delinquents. Furthermore, if the ability to control young
There are a few common reasons for young people to be involved in crime. These include poor parental supervision, drug and alcohol abuse, neglect and abuse, homelessness, negative peer associations and difficulties in school and employment. The criminal justice system effectively deals with young offenders through unique techniques to address the challenges of dealing with juvenile offending. Even though young offenders commit a large percentage of crime, they also have the highest likelihood to be rehabilitated and change their lifestyles as they mature. There are several factors influencing crime by young offenders including psychological and
Bradley R. E. Wright, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt and Ray Paternoster Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 2004 41: 180 DOI: 10.1177/0022427803260263 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/41/2/180
During the 19th century, poverty was widely seen as one of the main drivers of crime(Burney, 161). Many families that were starving were driven to theft. For some lower class families, crime was an easy way out, but for others it was a necessity. Furthermore, education affected crime in various numbers of ways. One direct effect of education is that it reduced the amount of time for criminal activities to those enrolled in school(Wong, 239). The older offenders committing crimes were too late to benefit from the spread of educational opportunities and they were more likely to commit crimes. Overtime, education resulted in a significant decline in juvenile offenders(Wong, 239). The unemployment rate had a significant effect on the crime rate as well. Many people found themselves without jobs and homes. Unemployment implied that the increasing risk of finding a good job encouraged crime.
Statistics show that the majority of the young people who offend often come from disadvantaged backgrounds, traumatic accidents, they can also be victims of domestic violence, homelessness and have mental health issues. According to the ACS Distance Education organisation (2015), there are many reasons why juveniles commit crime, but they almost all involve their surroundings and environment. Whether it is parental criminality, social alienation, school
Most of the paper will include theorist perspectives on developmental trajectories associated with an early age of onset and continuation of crime (antisocial behavior, an environment, biology, etc.). Theorist claims are that teenagers are prone to risky behaviors and deviant acts. The typical starting point for criminal behavior is around 14 through 17 years of age. Anti-social behaviors diminish (limited to youthful misadventures) before the child reaches age 20 provided there are no problems to prevent this change (Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle, 2008). Children under years 10 do not usually present with criminal behavior, even if they show propensity throughout this developmental phase although they may
In order to conduct research in the recidivism area, the use of secondary data will be used as an appropriate method for analysis. This analysis consists of measuring traditional penal sanctions such as incarceration versus alternative ways such as a rehabilitation treatment to deal with juvenile delinquency and investigate how it affects recidivism rates. The primary attention for this research proposal purpose is to rely only on juvenile delinquency data as the necessary specific information is not available for the adult population. Certainly, limitations exist as data is not collected by the author of this research proposal. However, due to limited resources this proposal utilizes quantitative methods based on secondary data regardless
This paper examined the issues pertaining to how each influences the prevention or fostering of delinquent behaviors. Children have too much free time, and lack the skills in using that time positively, causing them to engage in negative behavior. This paper also examines the programs in which students are involved with in school, and whether or not they positively correlate with reduced delinquency. Lastly, this paper examines how the change in family itself has changed over time, from lack of father figures. Casual factors will include topics such as violence in media and racial tension, the appearance of new
In the United States, juvenile delinquency is becoming a major problem in the communities across the country. Because of the actions that these juveniles engage in on a regular basis, taxpayers across the country are having to shell out hundreds upon thousands of dollars to rehabilitate these children in order to help them make better choices. This leads citizens to wonder what factors actually cause juveniles to live a life of crime rather than success. In short, there are three main factors that often cause children to live a life of crime. These three factors are social influences, psychological characteristics, and academic potential.
In the first paper, Labor Force Participation, Labor Markets and Crime by Crutchfield, Wadsworth, Groninger and Drakulich (June 2006) utilized two data sources from the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth), a nationally representative sample of approximately 9,000 boys and girls between the ages of 12 to 16 and followed up every year thereafter. For their study the respondents used in their analyses were between 18 and 20 years old when last surveyed. This paper looked at the relationship between employment and job quality, and the respondent’s involvement in crime. Also how employment and education are related to criminality.
Delinquency amongst young people has gained a lot of attention recently from the media, the public and even policy maker’s, as young people are now being criminalised and negatively portrayed by the media. In addition, research has shown that in 2016, there was an estimate of 16,300 sentencings given by the courts to young people. Furthermore, it has been revealed that young people are likely to participant in offending’s which involve fraud, sexual offences and violence (Home office, 2017). Perhaps the most recent recognised youth crime was the “London Riots’ which took
The study revealed that unskilled workers who are affected by an increase in wages are likely to lose employment, become idle and ultimately commit a crime. They estimated that unskilled workers have a 1.3 percent of becoming idle when affected negatively by changes in minimum wage and 7.6 percent difficulty in gaining full employment with the probability of committing crime increasing by 1.4 percent. They also used linear probability and logit models in self-reported crime and estimated that youth aged 14-16 have a higher crime rate than those aged 17-19. In addition, they estimated that monetary crime is prevalent among young youths than adults. They argued that the difference in monetary crime committed by the two groups is due to the rate of Substitution among workers within those age groups in the low-skills labor
Previously, there was not enough knowledge or resources amongst communities to raise awareness or organise crime prevention programs for juveniles. Today, schools together with police and community-based workers are aiming to provide the expertise to help create crime prevention programs for juveniles. It is believed that that one of the most active crime prevention strategies is effective intervention programs. A substantial number of crimes amongst adolescence are detected from anti-social behaviours. Youth need to be more involved in their community activities such as church associated groups, sports clubs, recreation centres (Dodington et al 2012, p. 1026). Other school organisations such as ‘Links to Learning’ helps adolescences engage in activities that will teach worthy skills for future work and careers. All these extracurricular activities will give youth less time to consider committing crimes