Solar Modulation Of Galactic Cosmic Rays

1318 WordsAug 25, 20156 Pages
Solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) has been a subject of intense research, especially to assess the continuously changing behaviour of the sun and its influence on cosmic rays. This modulation of GCR intensity associated with ~11-year solar activity cycle has been studied from past several decades (e.g., Forbush, 1954; Burlaga et al., 1985; Venkatesan and Badruddin, 1990; Storini et al., 1995; Sabbah and Rybansky, 2006; Kudela, 2009; Ahluwalia et al., 2010; Heber, 2013; Chowdhury, Kudela, and Dwivedi, 2013; and references therein). The long-term GCR modulation shows ~22-year cycle related to the solar magnetic cycle as the solar polarity reverses near solar maximum of very activity cycle; the polarity dependant effects on cosmic rays have also been an area of active research (e.g., Jokipii, Levy, and Hubbard, 1977; Potgieter and Moraal, 1985; Smith and Thomas, 1986; Cliver and Ling, 2001; Kota 2013; Potgieter, 2014; Laurenza et al., 2014; Potgieter et al., 2014; Thomas, Owens, and Lockwood, 2014; Thomas et al., 2014; and references therein). The ~11/~22 –year GCR intensity modulation in anti-phase with solar activity shows some time lag. This time lag has been observed to vary from solar cycle-to-cycle (odd/even cycle) and polarity epoch-to-epoch (positive/negative epoch) (e.g., Mavromichalaki, Belehaki, and Rafois, 1998; Kane, 2003; Badruddin, Singh, and Singh, 2007; Singh, Singh, and Badruddin, 2008; Inceoglu et al., 2014; Kane 2014). However, a number of

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