When the USSR collapsed the Cold War was ended, along with the spread of communism. In the year 1991, the USSR lost control of several Baltic States. Harsh living conditions and oppressive policies stirred rebellion in the people. Russian President Gorbachev tried in vain to restore power by first withholding, “vital supplies like oil and raw materials from the Baltic States, or even used force…where hundreds of people were killed” (Paxton 651). When deprivation and violence failed, Gorbachev persuaded member republics of the USSR to sign a “new union treaty establishing a looser federation of ‘sovereign states’” (Paxton 651). Although, he had meant to strengthen communism, Gorbachev’s bloody tactics lost support of progressives, as well as, conservatives. The final signature of the union treaty was blocked by a coup led by Boris Yeltsin, later he would become president of the Russian Federation. Secession movements brought civil war to Russia. On September sixth 1991, the Baltic States declared full independence with heartland regions similarly minded. Now considered obsolete, the USSR was replaced with a new Commonwealth of Independent States. Gorbachev resigned and Yeltsin assumed control. The Soviet Union no longer existed.
Before, the Communist Soviet Union was the unifying threat that brought NATO into existence, but now that danger was gone. NATO could accept one of two fates, “it must either consider a new foundational priority/goal/purpose as a basis for coherent
For many revolutions people may argue different reasons why that particular revolution was caused, but there often one that is the primary cause. The Russian Revolution began February 1917, many people in Russia lost faith in their government, especially since they had not done so well to begin with when they participated in World War I. Which resulted in a lot of expenses. Others may argue that since Tsar was an unproductive leader and because of the decisions he made when he was in power that influenced the Russian Revolution. Although Tsar’s weak leadership may have influenced the Russian Revolution, World War I was the main cause of the Russian Revolution because it destroyed the economy, which led to riots and many people
In 1945, one major war ended and another began. After World War II, the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union were involved in what became known as the Cold War, which was a period of mutual fear and distrust. The war was given the name "cold" because the two sides never actually came into direct armed conflict; it was a war of words and ideologies rather than a shooting war (Crawford, 2009, p. 6). The Soviet Union and the United States came out from World War II as the new world superpowers, and despite their common victory with the defeat of their enemies, their primary bond was broken. There were deep-rooted ideological, economic, and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union prior to the Second World War. Their differences, most notably their political systems and their visions of a postwar Europe, were intensified as a result of their mutual suspicions and during and after the Second World War drove the allied nations into an ideological conflict that lasted for 45 years.
Which quickly led to the dissolution of the Soviet bloc. But more importantly, these reforms contributed to the spread of nationalist oppositional groups which further weakened the Soviet Union. As a result, Gorbachev’s reforms undermined both communism and the Soviet Bloc leading to its rapid demise, contrary to his intentions. Consequently, hard-liners within the communist party attempted to stage a coup against Gorbachev in order to reassert their control over Eastern Europe. This coup, failed resulting in the Baltic states’ demands for independence. By December 1991, all 15 republics had declared their independence and subsequently, the Soviet Union seized to exist.
Former Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev presided over the disintegration of a country based on an uncompromising ideological dogma, the unlikely inheritor of Marxist/Leninist communist philosophy. The Soviet Union’s unwieldy economic superstructure left it vulnerable to Ronald Reagan’s aggressive economic/military policy, an approach based on the belief that a military build-up would force the Soviets to spend to keep pace, an effective strategy because it pushed the Soviet economy over the edge into ruin. The subsequent implosion ended communist domination in Eastern Europe and opened the way for democratic elements that radically altered the political landscape in Moscow. When the Soviet Union officially came to an end in 1993, it briefly recalled the end of tsarist rule in 1917, with the potential for the kind of chaos and violence that turned the Russian Revolution into a bloodbath. President Boris Yeltsin used the military to disband parliament but his call for new elections moved the country toward a more open, democratic form of government. Lacking any real background in representative government, Russia ultimately proved incapable of fulfilling the promise of democratic government and descended into a form of anarchy riddled by increasingly strong criminal elements. In recent years, the rise of Boris Putin, a new strongman in Moscow, helped restore a sense of order and allowed the resurgence of communist elements. The government that now holds power, and which
In addition to an economic crisis, President Obama inherited the two wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. An ardent opponent of Bush 's decision to invade Iraq in 2003, Obama pledged to withdraw American troops as soon as possible. Reagan argued that U.S. leadership was crucial to stop the Soviet Union from expanding. Contrastingly, Obama was eager to end the campaign in Afghanistan by slowly withdrawing troops, declaring that it was time for the U.S. to focus on nation-building at home. Reagan’s strategy was based in large part on his fundamental belief that a free and capitalist economy could outperform a Communist one and force both into an arms race that they could not afford. Obama’s doctrine instead emphasized how the state needed to tax
I really enjoyed reading this book. The author did a great job of reviewing a lot of sources, including interviews with key players on both the US and Soviet side, and wove many threads together into a thorough, and thoroughly enjoyable story. As noted in some of the editorial reviews, at times it feels like you 're reading a spy novel. And at times some of the details - particularly about the Soviet 's germ warfare program - sound almost too lurid to be true. Except that everything in this book is impeccably documented - the bibliography takes up about 15% of the book.
As World War II was coming to an end and the Ally armies were converging, two superpowers came to meet with one another on the outskirts of Berlin. With the momentum that the Red Army was making against Germany, many in the Allies believed that the Communists would continue to sweep across Europe. Although united against the greatest evil the world had ever known, both sides of the opposing economic theories viewed each other as the next enemy after the war. No war ever occurred between the Soviet Union and the United States, at least not one that was fought with soldiers. A war of espionage, alliances, and what this essay will focus on; propaganda. Propaganda was second nature to the Soviet Union, as from its insurrection the Soviet Union worked to convince its population and the world of how it’s system of economic governance was the better solution. This propaganda can take the form of any type of media, such as: pamphlets and flyers, radio and television, and film and animations or even word of mouth. It can be created to bolster one 's own goals, to discredit the goals of others, or a combination of both. As you will see in the following propaganda campaigns, it is common for pro-communist pieces to bolster its perception while damaging the beliefs of capitalism. Some propaganda may be truthful, however often a fact of such material is that hyperboles or straight-out lies are used to give your position the stronger claim. While in this essay I will not analyze the
The Soviet Union played an important role in the events of the 20th century in both direct and indirect ways. The rise of the Soviet Union by the end of the Russian Revolution played a significant role in the way that World War I played out; it played a crucial role in the defeat of Nazi Germany during World War II. It was the formidable rival of the United States during the Cold War, during which every action it took was viewed with angst by the West. With the level of influence the Soviet Union possessed in the 20th century, the question is: what other more pressing influence caused its demise? The primary cause of the crumbling of the Soviet Union can be summarized by: the inability for the Soviet Union to maintain the support of the Soviet people, and this created the ultimate inability of the Soviet Union to create the socialist utopia that Marx envisioned.
Like the swing of a pendulum, the Tsars of Russia would fluctuate between reforming the government and becoming reactionary to the situations in the land. The Russian Tsars/Tsarinas, considered themselves the father or mother of the entire land and it was a very big land. Russian history had been prone to revolutions. Many a Tsar found himself on the short end of a sword or just the right amount of poison in his drink. All of the monarchs of Russia had this history in their minds when they began to rule but as the parent of their nation, they had no choice but to rule and do the best they could.
NATO, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is an organization with core military capabilities that can be calibrated to respond to a large group of security challenges. It was established to serve a purpose in the wake of the War on Terror and build peace and democracy in NATO nations after World War Two. NATO has responded to emerging challenges by taking up new missions on violence, undertaking unprecedented military operations, and expanding its membership and development of relationships. Recently, Trump has questioned NATO’s importance and relevance; slamming it as “obsolete”. Although Trump’s comment about burden-sharing has some merit, his judgements are misguided.
The war in Afghanistan has haunted NATO for more than a decade, causing many to question the purpose, capabilities and common sense of the organization. Thirteen years after NATO assumed the command of ISAF, it is time to review the Alliance’s shortcomings and draw appropriate conclusions.
NATO is a pact that ensures the presence of a standby mutual defense mechanism especially in the westernized European countries. Notably, the pact was a response of the perceived threat of communistic influence by the Soviet Union. Today, NATO continues the defense and the containment strategy especially towards Russia. This is evident from the proposed inclusion of Ukraine in the European defense pact (Spalding, 2006). Most of the European countries suffered a significant economic damage after the end of the cold war.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Caucasian country of Georgia (map below) was among the vanguard of forces seeking the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It was the only republic to join the Baltic in flatly refusing to even consider signing Gorbachev's new Union treaty in 1990.2 Agitation for Georgian independence led to a series of bloody clashes with the authorities that only served to further radicalize the nationalists. When
In this paper I will first explain the history of NATO and the United States policy towards it. I will then give three reasonable policy recommendations for the United States towards NATO. This is important because NATO is an organization with a very brief history but it has molded Europe and other countries and has made a safe-haven from war for the past five decades. NATO was spawn out of the Western countries of Europe fearing the expansion of the greedy, hungry Stalin of the Soviet Union which would directly lead to the expansion of communist governments. Also, “in 1949 most of the states of Europe were still enfeebled by wartime devastation, striving for economic recovery,
While “Washington is pushing hard to help Ukraine, enthusiasm seems weaker among NATO’s other members” (“Rumsfeld Praises Ukraine for NATO Membership Effort”). At the Vilnius, Lithuania conference in October 2003, less than half of the member countries were represented.