Sports Participation And Substance Use

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It was estimated in 2007 that the cost of substance use to the American tax payer was approximately $193 billion (National Drug Intelligence Center [NDIC], 2011). According to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Study of Substance Use of College Student-Athletes, approximately 77% of collegiate athletes reported using alcohol in the past year and 20% reported using marijuana (DeHass, 2006). Additionally, because college athletes are a subgroup within the larger collegiate institution they are at greater risk for problematic alcohol and marijuana use (Grossbard, Hummer, LaBrie, Pederson, & Neighbors, 2009). Traditionally, sport participation was believed to provide a buffer between athletes abusing drugs and alcohol (Pate, Heath, Dowda, & Trost, 1996); however, according to Lisha and Sussman (2010), a positive association existed between sport participation and substance use. Furthermore, athletes that reported in-season marijuana use also reported higher sensation seeking, greater anxiety, and coping motivations (Buckman, Yusko, Farris, White, & Pandina, 2011).
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined, as a subset of social intelligence that encompasses an individual’s ability to perceive emotions, comprehend the emotions of oneself and others, generate emotions to assist cognition, and regulate emotions in a way that promotes emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Individuals who possess higher levels of EI have

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