Taking a Look at DNA Cloning

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DNA cloning is the process of creating a multitude of copies of isolated DNA fragments; DNA cloning can be carried out via in vitro or in vivo methods. One can clone a specific DNA sequence or entire gene fragments. There are a multitude of procedures to carry out DNA cloning, but the major steps are the same for all types. To begin the process, one must isolate a DNA fragment from the chromosomal DNA. This is done by using a restriction enzyme. One could also use gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The next step involves introducing the fragment into a DNA sequence that can replicate itself along with the DNA fragment. The restriction enzyme will cut a DNA molecule that can self-replicate, and then the isolated DNA fragment will be inserted by ligation, which connects the fragment to the larger DNA molecule. This new artificially joined DNA is called recombinant DNA.
As mentioned before, restriction enzymes, which can isolate DNA fragments, are needed for the DNA cloning process to occur. Restriction enzymes can be found in bacteria; these enzymes can but within the molecule, so they are called restriction endonucleases. Restriction enzymes in prokaryotes can selectively cut foreign DNA in the restriction process; during the process, the host DNA will be protected by a methylase, which is a modification enzyme that modifies the DNA and prevents cleavage. These two processes combined are called the restriction modification system.
Restriction enzymes
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