The first Act of Supremacy was introduced by Henry VIII in 1534 during his rule of England. Later, when Elizabeth I came to the throne, the second Act of Supremacy was introduced to bring back the reforms that Mary had abolished. Both of these acts have many similarities but also some fundamental differences that helped indicate the type of ruler each monarch would be. Before discussing the differences it is important to first understand how the Act of Supremacy came about. Little is known about Henry’s childhood because as the second born he was never intended to become King. When his elder brother Arthur died months after his marriage to Catherine of Aragon Henry became the heir to the throne of England. Catherine stayed in the English court after the death of her husband and was betrothed to Henry . It was many years before the two finally married. Catherine did give birth to a male heir but unfortunately the child did not survive . There were many more attempts for a male heir but in the end the only surviving child of Henry and Catherine was Mary Tudor who would later ascend to the throne in July 1553 . Because Catherine was unable to produce a surviving male heir Henry sought to get an annulment of their marriage. The pope would not grant this and so Henry created the Act of Supremacy declaring himself the ‘supreme head of the Church of England ’ in 1534. By naming himself as the supreme head of the Church, Henry no longer needed to answer to the Pope or the Roman
Henry’s attention and rewards by trying to make the ladies in their families his mistresses. However, that strategy changed when Anne went from being his mistress to becoming queen of England. This meant that they weren’t just playing for money and power but they were now fighting for a place on the throne. This became increasingly more difficult after Anne’s execution when Henry showed that no one was safe and wining the throne was a dangerous play. Still, families like the Seymour and the Howards tried to gain power this way. For the most part, the Seymour succeeded in this endeavor by giving Henry what he most desired, a male heir. The Howards however failed with Anne and her daughter Elizabeth and then with Catherine who though young and fertile gave Henry no children and was later discovered as an
Answer: When Henry VIII was too young, Richard Foxe helped manage England for him. Henry started an alliance with Charles V of Spain and both nations started a war with France. Henry went against the Catholic Church and made himself the head of the English Church. Elizabeth I was jailed in the tower of London under suspicion of supporting the rebels against her sister Mary. Elizabeth defeated the Spanish Armada, in return making England the new superpower in Europe. Elizabeth rebuilt England 's economy and passed the religious unity act which made England to be the first protestant nation. Both Monarchs fought Rome over religious control in England, they
Henry VII took the throne after a battle against the former king Richard III whose forces outnumbered Henrys by two to one. Henry VII had a couple of big problems, one of them was that there were people that had a stronger claim to the throne than he did, his only claim was that god let him win the battle, therefore the nobility didn’t respect him at the beginning of his reign. Another of the problems he faced was the fact that he feared a lot
INTRODUCTION The Reformation is a significant development within a religious tradition. During the 16th century, many changes occurred in European society as well as the Church. These were mainly due to the Protestant Reformation, English Reformation and Catholic Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was initiated by Martin Luther around 1517, in Germany.
King Henry VIII was born on the 28th of June,1491 in Greenwich Palace. He was the 3rd of seven children of King Henry VII, the first Tudor king, and Elizabeth of York. Out of the seven children, only 4 survived infancy - Prince Arthur, Princess Margaret, Prince Henry and Princess Mary.
2. Henry IV was King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the Wars of Religion before ascending the throne in 1589. Before his coronation as King of France at Chartres, he changed his faith from Calvinism to Catholicism and, in 1598, he enacted the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants, thereby effectively ending the civil war. One of the most popular French kings, both during and after his reign, Henry showed great care for the welfare of his subjects and displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the time. By him granting religious liberties to the Protestants he was helping establishing a modern state in France.
In 1559, Queen Elizabeth attempted to reunite her country, by passing the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity (Pitchard 105). The Act of Supremacy stated that Queen Elizabeth I was the most powerful ruler of England; this acts also made her the Supreme Governor of the Church (Elizabeth I). The Act of Uniformity was a set of rules regarding the new Elizabethan Church (Elizabeth R). Rules of the Church were basic and simple. All people of England had to attend church on Sundays and holidays. A fine was issued to those who did not attend church, the money collected was then used to help the poor (Elizabeth R).
The issue of national supremacy is one that is addressed through several cases decided by the Marshall Court. McCullough v. Maryland (1819) and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) are two of the most important cases concerning national supremacy that came to the Supreme Court during John Marshall 's time as chief justice. While McCullough deals with the right of the federal government to create its own bank, Gibbons deals with the right of the federal government to regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
From his fifteen year minority to the inept rule of the rest of his reign, Henry VI was a "child", at least as far as governing ability was concerned. The period of his minority and the time that he was the titular king laid the groundwork for the Wars of the Roses. Had Henry been an intelligent king, with at least some political acumen, and the ability to win the respect of his nobles, their may have never been any Wars of the Roses. But his weakness in allowing government by favorites and governing foolishly on his own, at the very least directed his country down the road to a bloody civil war.
Catharine of Aragon was Arthur’s widow, and seven years after his death Henry VIII married her on June 11, 1509 when he was seventeen years old . The new prince, Henry VIII, did not waste any time in experimenting with his new found power. He quickly found two ministers his father greatly disliked when he was alive, and he had them arrested and then executed. Execution soon became Henry VIII’s standard way of punishing anyone who crossed his path.
The concept of absolute power was established in the seventeenth century and was prominent in Europe and Russia. Absolute power enabled kings and queens to have complete authority and power over their people. The kings and queens believed that through divine right, God gave them their power to rule over their country, hence their power was unconditional. The idea of absolute monarchy was a solution to the problem of an unorganized society. When absolute monarchies were established they began to spread across Europe and Russia.
Henry was born in North West France on 4 March 1133. His parents were Count of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. In 1150 - 1151, Henry became ruler of Normandy and Anjou, after the death of his father. In 1152, he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was a great t heiress in western Europe. In 1153, Henry moved to England in order to persue his claim to the throne that was being held by his family member. He made an agreement to succeed Stephan after his death. After Stephan’s death, Henry began to restore order. With the help of his chancellor Thomas Becket, the two started to reorganize the judicial system. With the introduction of The Assize of Clarendon, there were promises to give fast and clear verdicts, enrich the treasury
King Henry the VIII was born in 1491 to Henry Tudor VII and Elizabeth of York, making him their third child, but second son. He was named after his father, Henry VII, and since he was the second son, he was not expected to be King. King Henry VII eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales was to take the thrown and become King of England, that is until his death unexpected death. When little Henry was ten years old, he attended Arthur and his bride Catherine of Argon’s wedding. Four months after the marriage began, it ended, with Arthur 's death. There was a signed treaty that stated Catherine would be allow to marry the next heir to the throne – Prince Henry. It was considered necessary for a papal exemption to be issued permitting Henry to wed Catherine because she was his dead brother’s wife, and this marriage was restricted in Leviticus. At the time, and for the duration of her life, Catherine denied that her marriage to Arthur had even been fulfilled, so no agreement was required. In any case, both the gatherings in Spain and England needed to make certain of the authenticity of the marriage, so consent from the pope was looked for and got. The marriage did not take place however. Henry became King Henry the VIII of England when Henry VII passed on April 22, 1509, which changed his life forever.
Even if his Beaufort line could be considered for the throne, Henry's mother would be in line to succeed before him. It was in fact remarkable that Henry VII ever succeeded to the throne and England accepted him as king for Henry VII was a former attainted exile who did not have a strong hereditary claim to the throne. But it was his victory at Bosworth field that brought him the throne, not his descent; his weak hereditary claim gave his accession some semblance of legitimacy. Bosworth helped him consolidate his dynasty for it not only eliminated some of the other principle claimants to the English throne, it was regarded by contemporaries as an expression of divine will, as Henry would tell parliament "the true judgement of God in granting him victory over his enemy in the field." In order to further consolidate his claim Henry married Elizabeth of York. He did so partially at the request of Parliament, partly because he could not afford the political price of going back on his pre-Bosworth promise and most importantly to prevent anyone with ambitions for the throne from marrying Elizabeth, who had the stronger claim. However the succession was by no means secure in Henry VII's reign. When Henry VII's heir Prince Arthur died prematurely on April 2, 1502 Prince Henry was only ten, and if he were not to survive there remained only his sisters Margaret and Mary. Henry VII fell ill