The Coastal And Marine Conservation And Management Approaches

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1. Introduction The Coastal and marine conservation and management approaches are focused on a restricted area of significant human usage for practises such as; recreational and commercial fishing and leisure, and highly active biologically. The coastal marine ecosystem has been suffering a general tendency of population growth and, nowadays, has been also linked with industrial increase (Pietersen & Beekman 2006). However its benefits might be essential to stakeholders, as a consequence of this constant disproportional growth, the threats are becoming more visual, which also increases the awareness. That, added to the recognition of the coastal environment, existing and emerging threats and important economic value, implies that a feasible management approach is necessary. The difficulties met in planning and management starts at the very first step; identifying and prioritizing the problems (Scherer et al. 2014). Thus, the most feasible and effective approach encountered will be discussed posteriorly to the main threats; such as overfishing, pollution and climate change, in which incorporates ocean temperature rise, sea level rises and ocean acidification (Stelzenmüller & Martìn 2009). 2. Threats It is important to highlight that most coastal environments, due mainly to anthropogenic events, are constantly exposed to the majority of these problems, not individually. The synergistic effects of human disturbance expand considerably the responses. In other words, stresses

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