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The Curriculum Design And Development

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Introduction

At the dawn of technical education two major philosophies emerged. The philosophers behind these theories were quite divergent in their beliefs. Charles Prosser and David Snedden were advocates of the social efficacy doctrine and believed that the primary goal of vocational education was to prepare individuals for work and the needs of industry. Furthermore, they believed a liberal arts education was reserved for individuals of status (Gordon, 2014). John Dewey advocated an education that not only prepared people for the workplace, but life itself. He was staunch in his belief that humans could not be treated as mere capital adjuncts to industry (Hyslop-Margison, 2012). The debate between supporters of the two theorems
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6. Behaviorism. The concept that learning is based upon the association of stimuli and response through a system of rewards.
These 6 key principles are the foundation of various curriculum design methods in the Prosser-Snedden vision.
Competency based education (CBE) is based on the premise that education should be rooted in predetermined outcomes. According to Monjan and Gassner, “Competency based programs are committed to the behavioral specification of both the educational objectives and the evaluate procedures for all learning activities” (Monjan & Gassner, 2014, p. 4). Specification is done through performance objectives. If a student has successfully completed a performance objective, then he is competent in that area. For example, a student learning to be a mechanic might have to demonstrate knowledge of parts of an engine before he is permitted to remove and replace a part of an engine.
Mastery learning is another behaviorist approach in CTE. The foundation of mastery learning is Bloom’s Taxonomy (Guskey, 2010). “In using this strategy, teachers organize the important concepts and skills they want students to acquire into learning unit” (Guskey, 2010, p. 52). After each unit the teacher administers a formative assessment. The formative assessment allows the instructor to identify where each students needs additional help. Task analysis is the process of literally analyzing the task. Shepherd contends task analysis “in a way
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