The dependent variable, perception of safety on campus, was measured by an item on the questionnaire asking students to indicate their level of satisfaction on feeling safe on campus. Respondents rated their satisfaction on a scale from 1 (Very satisfied) to 5 (Very dissatisfied). Responses to this item were recoded into three categories. Very satisfied and satisfied were combined and recoded 0 (Satisfied). Undecided was recoded 1 (Undecided). Very dissatisfied and dissatisfied together were recoded 2 (Dissatisfied). Recoding was deemed necessary for easier interpretation of findings (See Table 1). Independent Variables The variables, perception of officers’ fairness and impartiality, fear at night, and violence in residence halls, were operationalized by an item on the questionnaire asking students to indicate their satisfaction or agreement. Responses to this item ranged from 1 (Very satisfied) to 5 (Very dissatisfied). Similarly, responses were recoded into three categories 1 (Satisfied – a combination of both satisfied and very satisfied responses), 2 (Undecided) or 3 (Dissatisfied – a combination of both dissatisfied and very dissatisfied responses). Gender was a dichotomous variable, with male surveyees coded 1 and female surveyees coded 0. Race or ethnicity was indicated by an item on the questionnaire that asked respondents to specify which group they considered themselves a member of Caucasian/White, African American/Black, Hispanic (Mexican, Puerto Rican, etc.),
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According to research conducted by Marginson et al. (n.d), 19% of students did not feel safe in
The violence that some officers exude to minorities should only be used in extreme, desperate situations not when a teen steals some cigars or is walking home with a hood on. Besides showing an interest in racial justice and issues of race helps to break down barriers, exposed as false perceived misunderstandings, and shed light on commonly held perceptions of a race-infused
As difficult as their job may be, and as big a toll as it may take on them emotionally, it is important to bear in mind that police officers are normal human beings with normal brains and mental processes. Consequently, they are prone to make the same stereotype-biased judgments the rest of us are. Because they are often operating under conditions of uncertainty, high discretion, and stress and threat, the pervasive stereotypes linking Blacks and Latinos with violence, crime, and even specifically weapons are likely to cause them to make misattributions in seeking to disambiguate the intentions and behaviors of citizens. This can lead to racially disparate rates of stops, searches, arrests, and use of force. Several interventions that aim to reduce bias or discriminatory behavior at the individual level warrant further investigation in the policing context. Nonnegative intergroup contact is especially promising given its strong evidence base and that it could be achieved through
Law enforcement and minorities have long been the focus of the criminal justice injustice within the United States. African Americans, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans are a number of communities in the United States along with Caucasian or non-minorities as a whole, which make up a large portion of the United States. Racial discrimination has been a large factor the criminal justice system has been plagued with for many years. In the book Just Mercy, authored by Bryan Stevenson, Stevenson details his life’s work to help those who were wrongfully convicted and biased towards in sentencing. A big part of the book is related to racial discrimination among officers. Analytically I will be looking at the question of whether the relations between the police and minority and non-minority communities differ. I will look at number of factors related to traffic enforcement practices, use of force and arrest of minorities and non-minorities in determining if there is any differences among police community relations.
This paper provides an overview of the problems facing the police in their efforts to improve relations with minority communities in the United States, as well as a survey of previous research and existing literature on cultural diversity
Thirteen people were killed at Columbine High School in 1999, thirty-three died during the Virginia Tech shooting in 2007, and twenty-seven people, twenty of whom were children no older than seven, were killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012 (Kirk). These name only a few of the larger and most well-known school shooting incidences. In total, 297 people have lost their lives due to school-based shootings since 1980 (Kirk). Although this number may be small in comparison to death by guns overall, these instances are completely unwarranted and it is likely that they could have been avoided or at the very least reduced. These people, college and high school students, teachers, and even children, might still be alive today if our
According to the NCSL, National Conference of State Legislatures “Over the last five years, campus safety legislation has been a hot issue across the country”. Authors like Jazz Silva are standing up for student’s rights that some State Legislatures might not care about. Not only are weapons dangerous but it is unsafe to students who may struggle with mental health issues. College campuses are safer than the communities that surround them. The University of Louisiana system states “93% of the violence against students occurs off campus.” Allowing guns on campus would lead to an escalation in violence, can lead to an increased number of suicides by college students, and the possibility that a weapon can go off by accident.
There is recent controversy over police use of force, especially in minority communities such as in African American communities, Hispanic communities, and other publics with large populations of minorities. Increased levels of force among these communities have created challenges for police departments. These challenges include a lack of trust from the community towards law enforcement officers and an absence of respect creating situations that lead to police use of force. There are already various programs in place that attempt to decrease this challenge by educating the public, respecting one another, and giving those who were on the wrong track second chances. A combination of these solutions and the implementation of more of them would decrease the number of contacts between police and minorities that lead to the use of force (Roberg & Novak, 2014).
You will be asked 10 questions about how you feel about safety in your school. Please choose an answer that reflects the way you feel most correctly. Please remember to be as honest as possible. Your identity will not be shared.
Cochran, J. C., & Warren, P. Y. (2012, May). Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in Perceptions of the Police. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 28(2), 206-227.
Safety is a tremendous issue on college campuses, and additional procedures need to be taken to prevent crimes from happening. When walking onto a college campus as a young adult, people get a rush of the unknown. The unknown could be going to college parties and late night study groups. College should be like any high school or elementary school and have better security measures to protect their students. The reasons we need these extra steps are to prevent violence, give students a sense of security, and monitor visitors on campus.
When it comes to race within law enforcement, male police officers still question whether women can handle the dangerous situations and physical confrontations that officers may be confronted with, while it is shown that most police women have easily met the expectations of their superiors. Indeed, studies have found that, in general, male and female officers perform in similar ways. In addition, research has found that most citizens have positive things to say about the work of police women (Worden,
Moral issues within law enforcement, the courts and the corrections system have made it complex and difficult to navigate fairly throughout the criminal justice system. Enforcement strategies, court practices and the incarceration rates have created discrimination towards minority groups. Carelessness and unintentional actions are moral issues. The criminal justice system has failed to account for operational procedure which creates the perception of discrimination.
How student’s view their university’s police department is important to maintain positive interactions between the two parties. I have worked with UPD officers quite a bit and I have a positive view of UPD, but I know that many other students do not see them the same way I do. If there were more information on how college students view UPD officers there could be some specific actions taken by UPD to increase their appeal. To figure out how college students view UPD officers, my research question was: How do different subgroups of USD college students see UPD officers?
Over the past decade school violence has been on the rise. School violence has always existed in some form or another, whether it is a fight out on the play ground or a stabbing in the parking lot. However nothing got the nation's attentions like the April 20, 1999, Columbine school shooting. Ever since that day the nation wants to know what to do to protect the kids in this country. Many schools have gotten increasingly stricter on their policies, especially the schools that have more money. What about the schools that cant' afford metal detectors and security officers? American public schools are not safe, and need to have greater security measures to ensure the students' safety.