The Diagnosis Of Cancer, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, And Hiv Aids

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The diagnosis is one of the most important factors which influence the outcome of diseases but still it is ignored on a large scale by people. In cases of chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV-AIDS, and tuberculosis, the problem of late diagnosis is severe which causes high number of casualties. The physical symptoms may take time to appear in some cases of cancer. When a person starts to notice the symptoms, the disease is already in a late stage. In India, 70 percent of cancer patients consult the doctor at the terminal stage, according to doctors. Thus, late diagnosis of diseases is a serious concern globally and rigorous research is being done to invent innovative techniques to tackle this problem. In this study, the cases of breast …show more content…

A cancer tumor often produces a specific protein in the blood that serves as a marker for the cancer. Circulating tumor cells are cells that break off from the cancer and move into the blood stream. Protein markers and circulating tumor cells can be measured with simple blood tests. This method is not specific in nature as one marker may be common for multiple types of cancer. Hence, other tests are performed to confirm the diagnosis of breast cancer.
For example, presence of CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) marker is associated with colon, lung, and liver cancer. It also suggests that breast cancer has travelled to other parts of body. iii) Breast MRI: MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a technology that uses magnets and radio waves to produce detailed cross-sectional images of the inside of the body. Breast MRI has a number of different uses for breast cancer, including: screening high-risk women (women known to be at higher than average risk for breast cancer, either because of a strong family history or a gene abnormality), and gathering more information about an area of suspicion found on a mammogram or ultrasound, monitoring for recurrence after treatment. iv) FISH Test: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is a test that maps the genetic material in a person’s cells. This test can be used to visualize specific genes or portions of genes. FISH testing is done on breast cancer tissue removed during biopsy to

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