Quantitative Article Review
The Purpose of the Study.
According to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014), over 60% of insured adults in the U.S. had experienced childhood trauma, with 16% admitting to multiple types of abuse. This number can be even higher if the study sample included uninsured individuals, especially those who were in the high-risk, low socioeconomic status, and underrepresented population. Child abuse and neglect can cause both short-term and long-term effects, such as improper brain development, impaired cognitive and socio-emotional skills, lower language development, and high risk for chronic diseases, anxiety, and substance abuse (CDC, 2016). Given this information, the purpose of the study by Grabbe, Ball and Hall (2016) is to explore the severity of psychological trauma in women who were abused as a child (Grabbe, Ball, & Hall, 2016). The goal is to gain an understanding of what happened during the women’s childhood that may have prevented them from further abuse (Grabbe, et al., 2016). Consequently, using that information to conceptualize interventions for prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent abuse (Grabbe, et al., 2016).
Design, sampling techniques and data collection. Was data collection clearly described and justified?
The main objective as stated within the article was “to explore trauma survivors’ perspectives on what had happened to
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Currie and Widom discusses how child abuse and child neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being. The article discusses adults that have experienced childhood abuse or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings and fewer assets when their adults compared to children who have not experienced it. Apparently, the adults that were abused and neglected were in menial and lower paid jobs than the adults that were not. The authors also talk about how child abuse increases the negative consequences in a child adult life across multiple domains of functioning and developmental time points, including psychiatric, social, behavioral (crime and violence) and interpersonal functioning. This article could be used for researchers and educators. The author uses excellent examples and sources, but the text will specifically be used to provide some data my research
Early screening, ideally prenatal screening, of mothers is essential to the prevention of maltreatment during the vulnerable period of infancy and early childhood, when children’s brains are developing at a rapid pace. Support- ive relationships, including with romantic partners or therapeutic professionals, are one important aspect in breaking the cycle of maltreatment (Egeland, Jacobvitz, & Sroufe, 1988; Milan, Lewis, Ethier, Kershaw, & Ickovics, 2004). Since intimate partner violence is associated with risk for child maltreatment (Taylor, Guterman, Lee, & Rathouz, 2009), taking a broader ecological approach that includes assessing household and partner risks is important. Utilizing obstetric or pediatric venues to identify risks for intergenerational continuity and transmission, and then offering resources or referrals to bolster or build supportive relationship capacities may contribute to breaking the cycle of maltreatment, and promoting the positive health of family members (Garner et al., 2012). Screening with attention to types of abuse and neglect that mothers may have experienced during childhood will inform a more nuanced understanding of child maltreatment prevention among moth- ers with histories of abuse and neglect. One review of preventive interventions for child abuse and neglect concluded that different interventions are more or less
There are different types of trauma child welfare programs focus on. They typically focus on behavioral and emotional problems and ways to correct the child (Greeson et al. 94). However, it is not as simple as the welfare programs want it to be. One first must look at the trauma history of the child, or the “Trauma History Profile”, also known as THP (Greeson et al. 97). The THP addresses “lifetime exposure to trauma and contains a
In the immediate, as well as long-term aftermath of exposure to trauma, children are at risk of developing significant emotional and behavior difficulties (CWIG, 2012). The most damaging types of trauma include early physical and sexual abuse, neglect, emotional/psychological abuse, exposure to domestic violence and other forms of child maltreatment (Hoch, 2009). Research has shown that children that are exposed to these types of trauma will experience developmental delays including language and verbal processing. Also, they will have risk of poor physiological and psychosocial functioning, and will be vulnerable to emotional and behavioral dysregulation disorders, thus, leading to an increase risk of poor outcomes including substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy and paternity, criminal activity, and revictimization (Hoch, 2009).
Often times we are unaware of events that go on behind closed doors. Abuse (mental, physical, and sexual) can alter a child’s behavior, personality, and trust. Often times these children will be unwilling to participate in any activity or lesson. Not only do these traumatic events affect the child now, but it can leave lasting cognitive and behavioral problems. A child who has been abused “can be detected only through the emotional and behavioral abnormalities that it causes (G. Jacobi, 2010).”
“American Psychiatric Association defines trauma as an event that represents a threat to life or personal integrity. Trauma can also be experienced when children are faced with a caregiver who acts erratically, emotional and /or physical neglect, and exploitation” (Maltby, L., & Hall, T. 2012. p. 304). Trauma comes in many different forms including: war, rape, kidnapping, abuse, sudden injury, and
The subject of victimization and childhood trauma and neglect, especially sexual victimization is in desperate need of additional awareness despite the increase in the research literature over the past three decades. Youth who experience any form of victimization, whether it be sexual, emotional, and/or physical throughout their childhood are known to have difficulties in their childhood and adolescent development (McCuish, Cale & Corrado, 2015). The abuse they experience can be from their caregivers, sexual victimization by acquaintances and strangers, assaults by peers and can be exposed to violence in their neighborhoods (Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner and Holt, 2009).
Childhood trauma is one of the most heartbreaking situations to ever fathom happening. Childhood trauma includes neglect, maltreatment, physical and emotional abuse, and many other forms of mistreatment amongst children. Childhood trauma occurs between the ages of 0 and 6 years of age. When referencing to childhood trauma, one must take thought into who commits the abuse, who is affected by the abuse, and what long term effects can the abuse have on the victims. One must also take into consideration the sex differences when referring to childhood trauma. Numerous of studies have been conducted and many findings have been made. Prior to conducting this research paper, I only considered childhood trauma to be what it was and never considered the long term effects. Because of my assumption, I never even considered the other categories of the trauma.
Domestic Violence is a problem sweeping the nation. This problem can affect anyone from anywhere but is generally acting out upon children and adult women in abusive relationships. Domestic violence is emotionally and physically scarring for anyone involved, and as a result could take multiple intervention meetings to begin to understand the issue, alleviate the associated problems, and to assist the victim in getting back on his or her feet. The consequences of abuse include anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and self-harm. Children may begin to act differently to their usual behavior - withdrawal is very common, as is self-harming (Khan, 2012). There are two ways that people can consider interventions for victims of
Every year, child abuse and neglect affect more than one million children nation-wide (Currie and Tekin 1). Along with this, child abuse is the source of severe injury to more than 500,000 children and the death of over 1,500 children (Currie and Tekin 1). These outrageously large numbers reveal the extent to which child abuse and neglect impact society; however, they do not acknowledge the effect abuse can have on a child’s life and the repercussions that may occur in both the individual’s childhood and adulthood. While the effects most certainly include physical pain and possibly future disabilities, child abuse and neglect can also affects the child’s psychological welfare. Psychological effects are often more difficult to recognize,
Child abuse and neglect have immediate and long-term consequences. In addition to negatively impacting the child, child abuse and neglect impacts the family, the school community, and even future generations. The ability to survive and be successful in the face of child abuse and neglect depends on a variety of factors, including the extent and type of abuse or neglect, whether it was continual or infrequent, the age of the child when abuse was initiated, the child’s relationship to the abuser, and how the abuse or neglect was responded to. Outcomes are also dependent on the child’s personality traits, inner strength, and the support the child receives from those around them. It is important to acknowledge that some children will not develop behavioral problems, so it cannot be assumed that a
Child abuse and neglect are considered a social phenomenon that plays a crucial role in American society as well as in the American criminal justice system. All types of ages, genders, ethnicities at some point or another are represented as victims or perpetrators of child abuse or neglect. Child abuse includes physical, psychological and sometimes sexual abuse to a person who is below the age of 18. Child abuse or neglect victims tend to grow up with long terms consequences such as low self-esteem, depression, and other major consequences such as engaging in criminal behavior as adults, teen pregnancy and not to mention the severity of physical child abuse consequences can end up in a death of an innocent victim. This literature
Child abuse is a term impacted by copious multidimensional and interactive factors that relate to its origins and effects upon a child's developing capacities and which may act as a catalyst to broader, longer-term implications for adulthood. Such maltreatment may be of a sexual, physical, emotional or neglectful nature, each form holding a proportion of shared and abuse-specific psychological considerations (Mash & Wolfe, 2005). Certainly in terms of the effects / impairments of abuse, developmental factors have been identified across all classifications of child abuse, leading to a comparably greater risk of emotional / mental health problems in adult life within the general population
In today’s society, child abuse is widespread and has an affect on everyone who comes across it. The act of child abuse happens everyday to a variety of kids who are typically younger and scared to tell anyone. All children are born with the right to be able to develop, grow, live and love according to their needs and feelings. For a child 's development they need protection and reassurance from adults who love them and help them acquire the skills to be a successful adult. However, some children are neglected and hurt by adults that they trust. The abuse a child receives makes them feel bad about themselves, and it is much worse when it occurs within a family because it makes them feel unloved and alone causing them to have problems. “Abuse of all types was more frequent in those from disturbed and disrupted family backgrounds. Logistic regressions indicated that some, though not all, of the apparent associations between abuse and adult problems was accounted for by this matrix of childhood disadvantage from which abuse so often emerged. Numerous studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of childhood trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD), dissociation, personality disorder, and substance abuse ”(“New Retrospective Measure of Child Abuse and Neglect” by David P. Bernstein). The act of child abuse causes kids to have one or more mental problems. Additionally, since people do not recognize the abuse while it is occurring, it causes these problems to
The Hope for Children and Families manual describes child maltreatment as “a context in which children and young people are exposed to harmful parenting and/or abusive or neglectful situations” (Bentovim and Elliott, 2014, p. 270). The manual was developed to prevent future neglectful and abusive parenting and the related mental health effects on children. Researchers established the existence of effective practice elements by using 22 randomized control trials (RCTs) and compared their manual with an existing approach. The need for a new approach is evidence that there is not enough being done to effectively treat and eliminate the long term effects of childhood abuse.