The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Second Language Learning
April 5, 2015
Introduction Student motivation and engagement is crucial for success in language learning. Motivation has been widely discussed by leading scholars like, Dornyei and Gardner (use first names) of Second Language Acquisition (SLA), particularly focusing on how it affects English Language Learners (ELLs) performance in various aspects of the L2 language and learning process. Teachers and students commonly use the term motivation to explain what causes success or failure in learning (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, 2008). Without sufficient motivation, even learners with the most remarkable abilities, excellent teachers, and curriculum, still cannot accomplish long-term goals. Traditionally, researchers and psychologists have been more concerned with what motivation is rather than about how we can motivate learners (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, 2008). Recently, however, there is more information regarding the implications of using motivational strategies in language classrooms. Motivational strategies refers to “instructional interventions applied by the teacher to elicit and stimulate student motivation and self-regulating strategies that are used purposefully by individual students to manage the level of their own motivation (include page # in article)” (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, 2008). say instructional interventions teachers use to create
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ELL stands for English Language Learners and are often students from countries which do not speak English that come to school to learn not only the regular content that a school teaches but also the English language. One of the many issues teachers face in helping students learn the content in class is the challenge of integrating the students’ native language along with the content of the lesson. Studies have shown that “3 years of exposure to English is not long enough for all individual ELLs to catch up to their monolingual peers for all subdomains of language” (Paradis, 2016). To properly teach ELL students both content for subjects as well as the English language teachers need to help integrate English and the students’ native language
It is essential to understand English language learners’ needs because ELL students face the combined challenge of learning all the academic content as other students, while also learning the language of instruction. With the rapid growth in the size of the ELL student population in the U.S., teachers who are effective recognizes ELL students unique academic needs, unique background experience, culture, language, personality, interests and attitudes toward learning for the purpose to adjust, or differentiate, their instruction to meet students’ needs.
Within this paper we will take a brief look at the Language Acquisition Principles and how they work on the behalf of ELL students. We will see how these principles can be applied within our own learning environment. There is much information from Walqui article that gives a brief overview of ELL students and how things looked in the past for these students. Now that times has change we will see how educators can make the requirements for ELL students better and more effective for teacher and students. Hopefully, as we look at ways of changing learning for our ELL students we must remember that every student learns differently. Even if you follow the principles from
Each year, schools across the nation are seeing an increase in the amount of English language learners they are receiving. Teachers of all grade levels are finding it harder and harder to teach these ELLs because of lack of or little to no proper training. So the article, Setting the Foundation for Working with English Language Learners in the Secondary Classroom aims to show you the ideas and strategies that current and future teachers can incorporate into their daily class lessons to make them more effective in meeting the academic needs of ELLs and in helping them learn the target language.
In the 2014 October edition of the Education Update, authors, Kathy Checkley and Virgina Rojas discussed the topic of various ways that educators can provide support for the academic succession of ELL students. In their article Setting ELLs Up for Success, the authors stressed that along with the proper scaffolding techniques and student access, ELL students will thrive in a mainstream classroom. The objective of the article involves demonstrating the methodology in how to teach effectively for all and ELL students. Many times, language learners are looked upon as having a cognitive disability, when that is often not the case. The authors’ main purpose is to illustrate the significance of engaging ELL students in the class, providing good instruction, having high expectations, and building on students’ prior knowledge. Some of the essential features that were included in the article were ways to extend good practice for students which included expectations, assessment, and instruction. In order for ELL students to be set up for success, as included in the article, learning must also be socially and culturally connected.
During the past five months, I have worked with a group of ELL’s that are both motivated to achieve academically and to learn English as a second language. Plus, as the daughter of immigrants and as an English Language Learner, I know first hand that we are capable of achieving high academic standards. Therefore, I never believed the myths mentioned about ELL’s not being capable to achieve high academic standards nor did I believe that they are not motivated to learn. I did, however, believed that the best way for ELLs to learn the language was through exposure.
English Language Learners are children whose primary language is not English. This paper will include important topics such as: strategies for classroom teachers, How to adjust classroom instruction, and facilitating language learning. This will help guide new and existing teachers in the ELL process. I will discuss do and don’t with Ell’s and also different classroom strategies. It is not always easy to remember to be mindful of all students when planning instruction but this paper will help with all aspects of ELL learners and things that we must do when it comes to teaching these learners.
Literature review This section will provide background into the demotivation towards language learning in secondary schools, the importance of acquiring a second language for career purposes, and the effectiveness of interventions in raising attainment, closing the gap and boosting motivation. Other aspects such as policy, theory and good practice will also be examined.
Puchta & Schratz sees the lack of motivation as a result of ‘the goals and end being much more distant’. My YLs do see learning English in this way. They are acutely aware they need to learn English if the want to get into university, but that time is in 5 or 6 years for many of them so they do not see English as immediately important. Putcha & Schratz argue increasing levels of motivation lies in ‘linking the language more closely to their everyday experience’ as this would make ‘the end goals of language learning seem nearer’ (Putcha & Schratz,1993) and hence more motivating. Course designers therefore should be aware of topics, materials and tasks that are motivating for YLs rather than choosing a topic suiting the teacher.
Motivation is a driving factor in the success of learning a new skill. Ideally, a student is intrinsically motivated to perform a task; although, as educators have seen in the classroom, this is not typically the case. Therefore, introducing reinforcers to help motivate a student is beneficial, but only if the reinforcer is paired with a preferable item, activity or situation. Educators should remember that reinforcers are personal to the individual student and may not be appropriate for all students in the
Third grade students who are English Language Learners are struggling to understand lessons that are being taught in the classroom. The class has been assigned to do a book report over a country in a different continent of their choosing. The ELL students have started running into problems of understanding the task and how to find information, while the other students know that they will need to read books and look online to find research on their country. The few difficulties they have started coming across has discouraged them and they don’t want to do the book report anymore.
The first part of the student questionnaire sought elicit data about the student’s intrinsic motivation, the second sought elicit data about the student’s extrinsic motivation, the third sought out information on the student’s attitude toward learning English, and the fourth sought to measure the student’s opinion about the teacher.
(Zhang, 2014) Learning English as a Second Language (ESL) in a college setting can be impacted by the professor’s skills to understand their student’s attitudes and emotional needs towards learning. ESL can be classes can be daunting because of the teacher’s style of teaching, which can
Jameel Ahmad, in his article, “Traditional & Socio-Cultural Barriers to EFL Learning: A Case Study” suggests that Arabic children that lack intrinsic motivation to learn English will have a detrimental impact towards their learning. Long standing traditions and culture that teach students to not value learning a new language, since they believe that by doing so, it will not encourage students to
It is the duty of the teacher to identify those factors and comprehend it completely in order to teach the students effectively. Among all these factors, motivation is one of the most significant one. Dorneyi (2001 a) addresses the relevance of motivation by asserting, “ ‘motivation' is related to one of the most basic aspects of the human mind, and most teachers and researchers would agree that it has a very important role in determining success or failure in any learning situation. My personal experience is that 99 per cent of language learners who really want to learn a foreign language (i.e. who are really motivated) will be able to master a reasonable working knowledge of it as a minimum, regardless of their language aptitude.”