Islamic banking is a structure that allows conducting banking activities and trades in line with the Islamic Shari’ah laws and principles by avoiding all the haram (prohibited) activity such as interest and financing prohibited businesses.
An Islamic financial institution such as financial banking has been established before two or three decades ago in the aim to provide satisfactory financial facilities to the interested parties as compared to conventional banks. In 1974 Dubai Islamic bank which is the first Islamic commercial bank was established and later Islamic Development Bank (IDB) has been established in 1975 (Hennie and Iqbal, 2008).
Hennie and Iqbal (2008) stated in their risk analysis for Islamic banks book that Islamic …show more content…
According to Mousavi, Seyed M. Mahdi and Mahdavi Agha (2008) credit risk in Islamic banks appears in the settlement risk support. This kind of credit risk arises when the Islamic bank pays money or delivers assets before receiving its own assets or cash and then exposing itself to potential loss. Also Islamic banks expose themselves to credit risk when the bank uses profit-sharing mechanisms of financing such as Mudarabah and Musharakah because the entrepreneurs will not pay bank shares when it is due.
Although there are number of conventional banks that offer shari’ah-compliant products in their banking services, there are two major shari’ah compliant banks registered in Kenya which all of them are under the supervision of Kenya’s central bank (KCB) and they are given the same treatment as the other conventional banks in Kenya. These are Community Bank Limited, and Gulf African Bank. According to Azizul (1999) most Islamic banks that are working under the contemporary world operate in a mixed environment in which conventional banks function side by side with the Islamic banks and there are only few instances where special Islamic banking legislation was approved to define a new relationship between Islamic banks and the central bank. Ndungu (2010) noted that the concept of Islamic Finance has generated a lot of interest and overwhelming
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Islamic window is a concept introduced by Malaysian central (Bank Negara) bank where conventional banks also offer Islamic products beside conventional products in same environment by same staff. Initially, Islamic bank facing fierce competition from long establish conventional banking system. Islamic window introduction can reduce this since Islamic products also became a source of profit for conventional banks. A few conventional banks offering Islamic banking service under Islamic window has achieved an important volume of transactions in the Islamic window that they even set up Islamic bank subsidiary full fledge.
Islamic Banking is quite similar to a conventional bank. Only here the essential feature is that it is Interest Free i.e. it purely follows the Islamic law – Sharia’h (Rules) and guided by the Islamic Economics that forbids the both the payment and the receipt of Riba (Interest). The two main principles are basically Banks will share the Profit & Loss (enabling risk sharing) and disallow Interest in any form.
Islamic banking also provide the knowledge of Riba (interest) Hibha (gift) wadiah (safe keeping) ijarah ( lease , rent , wage) deposit product investment product and financing product (debt based) financing product (equity based ) trade finance
Islamic banking refers to a system of banking that complies with Islamic law, also known as Shariah law. The underlying principles that govern Islamic banking are mutual risk and profit sharing between the provider of capital (investor) and the user of funds (entrepreneur). In other words, it ensures an equal contribution for all parties involved, whether in profitability or in case of any loss occurred. Activities that involve interest (riba), gambling (maisir) and speculative trading (gharar) are prohibited (Bank Negara Malaysia, 2010). Islamic banking is interest free banking; making it compulsory to take active part in business profit and loss sharing. Islamic banks prefer to take less risk (Shaikh & Jalbani, 2009)
Almost 80% of respondents were non-Muslims. Therefore these research reports are mostly non-Muslim customer’s opinion on corporate banking Muslim. This study proves that Muslim banking products are not so popular among corporate customers in Malaysia and only a few maintain banking relationships under the Islamic banking system. In addition, nearly 65% of respondents indicated that their knowledge of Islamic banking system is very limited. This study shows that there is a misunderstanding among respondents regarding the objectives of Islamic banking. While 38.1% of respondents were uncertain about the nature of profit sharing system in Islamic banking, 50% believe that this principle is the only principle adopted by Islamic banks as a replacement Riba. Respondents were not familiar with other principles such as Musharakah, Ijarah, Wakala, and Istisna'a. Overall, the conclusions of the study are that there is a general knowledge that inadequate corporate banking products and services to Islam among
The financial sector in some Sub Saharan Africa countries has been growing rapidly in the past two decades. New products have been introduced and financial institutions are playing an tremendous role in financial intermediation, including cross-border financial flows. However, Islamic finance in Sub Saharan Africa remains small, although it has potential given the region’s demographic structure and potential for financial expanding. As of end-2012, about 38 Islamic finance institutions comprising commercial banks, investment banks, and takeful1 (insurance) operators were operating in Africa (Dow Jones, 2012). As estimates based on Bank scope and Zawya, April 18, 2012 out of
The prosperity and peace of a society much or less depends on its economy. While for the smooth running of both, there are several instructions in Islamic Shariah and allows what is right and forbids what is wrong. When we talk about financial issues, Islamic Shariah strictly condemns Riba. The question may arise why Islam prohibits Riba? While it was already in practice before the advent of Islam and still it is a part of different economic systems throughout the world. It is simply because Islam gives respect to human beings and condemns all the attempts that are harmful and disgraceful for humanity. Therefore, Riba is not only forbidden in Islam but economic experts are also in search of its substitute. Since borrowing on interest rate creates several issues including: less efficient allocation of resources, indebtedness, unemployment and economic instability. While in society it causes injustices, inequity, poverty and imbalance etc. In this paper we are discussing how Riba causes imbalance in the society and instead Riba what Islam demands from its followers.
The Islamic banking sector appears to have been resilient in weathering the financial crisis according to all reports even though it is also reported that profitability in the UAE Banking Sector is reported to have "suffered in 2009 as the global economic crisis impacted the region more significantly." (Moukahal, 2011) The UAE banking sector faces challenges particularly in Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah which are showing negative trend in prices and yields generated from rentals." (Moukahal, 2011) It is reported
Besides that, Islamic Banking is growing at a rate of 10-15% per year in this modern era with the signs of consistent future growth. Islamic banks have more than 300 institutions spread over 51 countries, including the United States
Abiding to Shariah in an overview is Prohibitions of riba, gharar and maysir, this is what distinguish Islamic finance from its conventional counterpart (Ayub, 2007). As an alternative, Islamic financial system have interest free loans, Islamic joint-ventures (musharakah/mudarabah) and trade or lease-based (murabaha/ijarah/salam) financing structures (Azmat et al. 2015). Contemporary Islamic financial institutions have developed, and continue developing, products that mirror the classical Islamic products, and evade from the association with riba, gharar and maysir (Kamla & Alsoufi 2015).
The evolution of Islamic finance now takes place in most of the countries, whether in Muslim countries or non-Muslim countries. Islamic finance institutions perform the same essential functions as financial institutions do in the conventional system, except that there is a need for them to carry out their transactions in accordance with the rules and principles of Islam. One of the most growing parts of the Islamic finance is Islamic equity market. In principle, Islamic equity market is characterized by the absence of interest based transactions, doubtful transactions and unlawful stocks of companies which deal in non-shariah compliance activities or items. Its market activities must be free from any of unethical or immoral elements.
An Islamic Financial system could be simply defined as a financial system that is based on the principles and values of Islam which mops up riba and guarantees a profit-sharing mechanism.
In general, Islamic banking system is based on Sharī’ah principle, while non-Islamic banking system is based on interest rate. Sharī’ah is a set of norms, values and laws that go to make up the Islamic way of life. Characteristics of Sharī’ah -compliant banking and financial system are free from riba. Riba is prohibited in Islamic banking system, because Islamic banking system is based on the sharing of risk and profit. Interest is
The challenge for Muslim countries like Bangladesh is to overcome its late entry into the market against well-established jurisdictions all over the world. Another subsequent challenge would also be to educate the masses and the other industry stakeholders regarding Islamic Problems and Prospects of Islamic Capital Market In Bangladesh 59 financial principles, products and investments. The challenge for them is to motivate authorities to provide favorable platforms and policies to make such initiatives viable. The Islamic financial operations are subjected to strange rules different from the ones applicable to the conventional operations; there are a number of challenges being faced by ICM. For instance, in many cases, the Islamic capital market has had to comply with the regulatory provisions meant for the conventional system which has an entirely different underlying objective and approach. Additionally, it should be noted that the
the establishment of Islamic banking in Bangladesh. Later In November 1982, a entrustment of IDB triped Bangladesh and proclaimed enthusiastic interest to contribute or the establishing a Islamic bank through joint venture especially in the private domain. Two proficient bodies such as the Islamic Economics Research Bureau (IERB) and the Bangladesh Islamic Bankers ' Association (BIBA) ended noteworthy groundwork on the way to initiate a Islamic banking in Bangladesh. They gave several training and workshop on the law and the regulation as well as the processing of Islamic banking to different top level bank officers, economist, and scholars. Mean the time different seminars, roundtable meeting, dialouge , cros talk and symposiam as well as the workshops on Islamic banking ccross the country.