The hypothesized Finnish population bottleneck is supported by archaeological evidence that shows the number of artifacts significantly decreased at roughly the same time as hypothesized. When taken together, the genetic and archaeological records suggest that there may have been a population bottleneck. The hypothesized population bottleneck circa 4000 BP (2000 BCE) has been increasingly researched over the past few decades, as genetic evidence has come to support the existing archaeological evidence for such an event. Recent genetic testing has shown that there is very low diversity on the Y chromosome, suggesting that the number of male ancestral lineages was small, especially compared to the rest of Europe. This is evidence for a population bottleneck that killed a large portion of the population at some point in the past. In addition, there are genetic differences between eastern and western Finland the presence of Finnish Disease Heritage, where certain genetic diseases are found in proportions different from the rest of the Europe, as is common in groups with decreased genetic diversity. Other arguments that explain the same evidence in other ways have been proposed and no consensus has been reached on which side is correct. The archaeological evidence is rooted in the number of artifacts found that can be dated to before and after the hypothesized population bottleneck. This research relies on the assumption that a higher number of artifacts dated to a certain
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According to Table 1.1, water vessel type W1 popularity increased over time, while water vessel type W2 decreased (refer to Chart #1). With this information, we may include the remaining archaeological data of water vessels in sites “D” and “GM” into the table with correct chronological order that pre-dates 2200 B.C. In essence, we now know the chronological flow of the sites from recent to oldest, which are “PGU”, “B”, “PGL”, “D” and “GM” respectively.
Characterized by their early adoption of bronze, the Argaric culture quickly gained dominance over other societies. However, El Argar reached its peaked after a severe drought. According to data from ‘Eco-ruin ‘felled early society’, the early civilization was drained of its natural resources causing their own downfall. These findings were based off of pollen preserved in compost deposits located in the mountains of eastern Andalucía, Spain. In addition, researchers drilled a sediment core from the Canada del Gitano basin in the Andalucía Sierra de Baza region. With information from the abundance of pollen types and from the sediment core, scientists were able to create the same vegetation that covered the area in past times. With their given findings, researchers were able to gather a pollen sequence that was able to tell them how human settlement and climate affected the ecosystems. Keeping this in mind, archaeologists are convinced that shortly before the collapse of the Argaric culture, something happened to the ecological structure of the area.
Double pieces that have lasted over thousands of ages to offer scholars with references to human existence during the Paleolithic period are the Woman of Willendorf figure and the Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel. Each figure is condensed with amazing features, even though they are not thorough to the level of realism. The Woman of Willendorf is one of the best instances of the small ‘Venuses’ that have been uncovered meaning that her persistence was a part of a ethnic set of views about women and fertility. The Lion Man, is a more exclusive artifact that recounts to the complex figures that are recognized from other cultures within which the related mythologies that have been revealed. The Lion Man has no known mythology that is obtainable in known written history to this day. The two pieces propose the unknown about the Paleolithic era, recognizing a sagacity of religion and rituals that were part of the lives of those who lived during that era and enlightening recent scholars on some aspects of the people during that time.
Archaeology is the study of the ancient past, through the recovery and analysis of material culture. During the development of archaeology, various different kinds of scientific techniques have been established to aid in archaeological investigation. Recent archaeological techniques and processes such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Radiocarbon Dating are utilised to help better understand a civilisation, specifically the site of Lindow Man. These modern methods have supported in recognizing Lindow Man’s identity and important information regarding his death such as his appearance, his stomach content, what he had eaten prior death and his age. This information has since helped lead scientists to believe in
The paleolithic civilizations the early period of human history from 2,500,00 through 10,000 B.C. Neolithic civilizations begun to
Starting in AD 800 and hitting its peak from 1050- 1200 AD, Cahokia covered six square miles with a population between 10,000 and 20,000 people (Jarus 1). During their 500 years, the Cahokians developed America’s first city and arguably the greatest civilization of its time, and then seemingly disappeared without a trace. But, despite Cahokia’s disappearance, a significant amount of history was left behind through earthen mounds, evolved social structures, advanced cultural practices, and Cahokia’s unexplained demise.
From the area that was excavated a total of 30,306 artifacts were excavated from the abandonment deposit. Of these 58.09% related to building materials, 1.15% were classified as ceramics, 30.78% were classified as ecological, .29% were classified as farmware, 3.02% were classified as glass, .56 % was classified as munitions, 1.6% as personal, .17% as general tools and 4.34% as utensils. The focal point of the following review of the data will be on the use of space in terms of foodstuffs, general working areas, and
Dating of the collection was’nt avalible for the lack of stratagraphy but bone from one the the skulls was date. It returned a date of 1000 BP, the date was retreived using the uranium thorium method. These skulls have been shown to show links to those from Kow Swamp.
If the history of ancient civilizations are ever told, they are told in a few paragraphs or a page or two of a history textbook. They are considered natives that lived in harmony with nature and that not many even existed so they must not be of importance. But now, we have books that challenge the way people normally would think of these civilizations. One book is called 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus by Charles C. Mann. He challenges these ideas, but not just saying them, but by actually showing the reader evidence he, himself, has found. In order to challenge these ideas, we can analyze the origins, demography, and ecology of ancient times to realize there was life before
The Maya civilization is a renowned part of history, as it is remembered for its delicate and detailed culture filled with alluring architecture and arts. Not only this, but the Maya civilization is also memorable for their astronomical and mathematical skills (Demarest 2004, Sharer & Traxler 2006, Houston & Inomata 2009). Yet, despite their flourishing agriculture, economy and political state, the Classic Maya society met their demise in the 9th century (Willey et al. 1967, Culbert 1973). Paleoclimatologists and archaeologists come together to better understand the circumstances which brought the end of the Classic Maya civilization, creating a variety of arguments which would explain so. Although many reasons are presented to explain the
9). Serpent Mound is well documented and has peaked archaeologist and other researchers interest for a long time, the first excavation dates back to Putnam in the 1890s (Herrmann and others 2014, p. 117). However, the age of construction for Serpent Mound has been a point of contestation for researchers. Researchers propose two time periods for construction, either Adena (~2,300 years ago) or Fort Ancient (~900 years ago) (Herrmann 2014, p. 119). Recently published work, as of 2017, done by Romain and others have provided strong evidence for Adena construction, radio carbon dates from GeoProbe core samples, LiDAR analyses, and electrical resistivity ground imaging surveys support their hypothesis (2017). Despite of initial construction of Serpent Mound, Hermann and Others do not deny that later Fort Ancient and other cultural groups occupied the site, making the site multi-occupational (2014,
This site began its occupation during the Developed Periphrastic Period due to the pottery found in strata 25, 24, 23, and 22. The site was continually used until the Early Pleonastic which is found in strata 18, 17, and 16. The site was abandoned sometime between 1500 BC-800 BC because in stratum 16 there is Early Pleonastic pottery then in stratum 14 there is Late Chiastic pottery. Stratum 14 has Late Chiastic pottery, indicating the site has a population again. However, the stratum is clearly a hole that cuts through strata 15, 16, 17, and 18. In the stratum, burnt animal bones, seeds, broken pottery, and broken groundstones are found, possibly indicating nomadic people travelling through. The C-14 dates on the seeds are 720 ± 30 BC and
to demonstrate how tool technology was used in determining whether Neanderthals or modern humans inhabited various sites in southwest France. This research indicates that Neanderthal extinction was the result of the high number of modern humans coming into the region (Dogandžić and Mcpherron, 2013:311). However, the authors response points out several flaws in regards to evidence used to validate this hypothesis. One piece of evidence the authors found inconsistency and bias in comes from the tool technology. The Mousterian technology used
1. Anthropologist had believed that the Clovis people were the first aboriginal/indigenous people settle in the Americas about 13,000 years ago, based on the ideologies that they either crossed through the Bering Strait Bridge or came off the coast of the Americas. It is believed that many groups of the natives diverged from the Clovis people. However due to other facts, anthropologist are reconsidering if they were the first people to have arrived in the Americas. There is anthropological evidence that there are people who arrived in the Americas 50,000 years ago way before the Clovis people. Archeologist found a charcoal that was dated 50,000 years ago, before the Clovis period but it is argued that this charcoal that has been found was not