The Incidence Of Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma ( Hnscc )

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Specific Aims Although the worldwide incidence of Head and Neck Squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been steadily declining over the past 20 years, it is still the sixth most common cancer by incidence with about 50% of mortality. Traditionally, the most notable risk factors for HNSCC are alcohol consumption and various forms of tobacco use, the combination of the two having a significantly synergistic effect on carcinogenesis. More recently, human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancers are increasing and becoming a significant problem, especially in the young population. The reasons are unclear although it has been postulated that an increased practice of oral sex may be a factor. Due to the species-specificity of papillomavirus, no preclinical model is available to directly study HPV-associated infection and persistence. Recently, we have established a mouse papillomavirus (MmuPv1) oral infection model. Viral infection was detected at the human equivalent sites in the infected mice, and advanced dysplasia was identified in the infected tissues. This model holds the promise to mimic HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers. More evidence demonstrates that tumor microenvironment has played a role in tumor outgrowth and progression. Multiple host defense systems, including host immune system, constantly fight against the invader, and their efficacy is directly associated with the disease outcomes. To understand the molecular mechanism of viral-host interaction
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