The Learning Theory influences everyone’s culture, ethnicity, gender, and social status, by being from different geographical location and religious background everyone has a unique characteristic, when it comes to learning or problem solving. One of the most important events in a human’s life is the “Learning Theory”. This process takes place from the minute we are born. Information is taken in and absorbed, in turn builds one’s ability to retain what one has learned. Many factors aid in the learning process which includes ones environment, past experiences, and one’s emotion which all play a rewarding understanding on how ones sees the world and retain information around them. B. F. Skinner, “who developed the ideas of respondent behavior (that which is brought about by a specific stimulus and can be conditioned) and operant behavior (that which produces consequences that tend to be repeated when reinforced and discontinued when not reinforced). Many different practice models have developed from the theories of the behaviorists, who operate by setting up controlled situations in which behavior can be conditioned and reinforced. These models are widely used in teaching, in treating problems of human relationships, and in working with personal problems that lead to destructive behaviors. As behavior modification develops, certain features are assuming greater importance. One is the detailed specification of objectives with the possibility of sub goals that serve as
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B.F. Skinners theory of operant conditioning is probably the most commonly used theory in practice in early years settings. Skinner suggested that people draw conclusions based on the consequences of their behaviour when exploring the environment. He divided the consequences into three areas. The first area being positive reinforcers where people are likely to get something they desire if they repeat a certain behaviour. He suggested that this was the most effective way to encourage new learning. This can be seen in early years settings where by children are rewarded for good behaviour this lots of praise, attention, stickers or treats. This will help children to carry on showing good behaviour until such a time when it is learned. Second is negative reinforcers which are used to stop something from happening but the behaviour is also likely to repeated. Just like when a child is going down a slide but doesn’t like going fast so they use their hands on the sides to slow themselves down. The third is punishers, which is a behaviour that you learn to stop doing e.g. if you receive a shock from an electric fence then you learn to stay away from it.
First off, the most effective way one should create a behavior modification program is based upon the ideas of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is: learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior. There are two main categories of operant conditioning.
In this essay I will look at the different definitions of learning theories and learning
In Psychology learning is seen as a change in behaviour caused by an experience. Behaviorism, is seen as a learning theory; an attempt to explain how people or animals learn by studying their behaviour. The Behaviourists Approach has two theories to help explain how we learn, Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In this task I will attempt to describe and evaluate this approach.
Operate Conditioning-: People learn and are influenced by the results of what they do. It’s also when people’s behaviour is affected by consequences, reinforcements and learning based on exploration of the environment. Skinner divided the consequences of actions into these three groups...
Skinner’s reinforcement experiments conducted on rats showed the principles of operant conditioning. While working with rats, Skinner would place them in a Skinner box with a lever attached to a feeding tube. After multiple trials, rats learned the connection between the lever and food, and started to spend more time in the box procuring food than performing any other action. He used positive reinforcement, and negative reinforcement to produce or inhibit specific target behaviors. Therefore, if a specific behavior is reinforced then the probability of that behavior occurring again is increased. Based on Skinner’s view, this theory can be applied to learning because learning is nothing more than a change in behavior. Operant conditioning encourages positive reinforcement, which can be applied in the classroom environment to get the good behavior you want and need from students. One of the ways of reinforcing a student’s behavior is through praise. Also teachers can build operant conditioning techniques into their lesson plans to teach children possible skills as well as good behaviors. For example: to give a smiley face, or motivational stamps to encourage children to perform correctly and encourage them to repeat such action again.
It is important to make aware there are many different theories regarding the understanding of how individuals learn and develop. As we start to identify we begin to comprehend and realise that everyone does not learn the same way as the next person. The learning theories that are to be taken into account are as follows: Behaviourism, Cognitivists, Humanists, Social Learning, Adult Learning and Motivation.
Skinner and his colleagues (Gass & Larry, 2008), learning or a change of behaviour on the part of the learner, is brought about by a process known as 'operant conditioning' which is the result of repeated training. Operant means 'voluntary behaviour' which is the result of learner's own free-will and is not forced by any outsider or thing (Ortega, 2009). The learner will demonstrate the new behaviour first as a response to a system of a reward or punishment, and finally it will become an automatic response.
Learning is a multifaceted perception unique to each individual. In looking to address the intricacies of learning, there have been a multitude of learning theories established over the centuries. To this day new theories are developed and traditional theories continue to be developed and expanded upon. (Swinburne Online, 2016)
The introduction has demonstrated the origins and influences of both reinforcement and behavioral therapy Skinner In this case, we first discuss about the modern-day applications of reinforcement learning in education. Second, we will discuss about the modern-day applications of reinforcement learning in behavior therapy. Lastly, an overall conclusion will be provided to discuss about how Skinners theory of human behavior and how it influenced and evolved reinforcement learning in both education and behavior therapy today.
The behavioral perspective of development suggests that human development can be understood by observing how people behave in response to environmental stimuli. This theory denies distinct universal stages in development and insists that environmental factors influence how a person will change and adapt in their society. From this perspective, people will have positive developmental experiences if they grow up in a nurturing environment. B.F. Skinner introduced the operant conditioning theory which asserts that children develop in response to reinforcement or punishment (Feldman & Landry, 2014, p. 15). Reinforcement increases the likelihood of someone
In the field of child development, many psychologists, sociologists, and behaviorists contributed and came up with different theories that helped to form our current education system. One of those is B.F. Skinner’s theory of behaviorism, which had a great impact on many strategies we use today for teaching and training. In his theory, operant conditioning is the most famous and influential idea that helped people to understand the behaviors of children and even adults. Skinner focused on how the environments, in the form of reinforcement and punishments, influence behaviors. Thus, his theory cannot explain the higher cognitive functions such as problem solving and critical thinking. Despite his theory’s critiques, Skinner stood strong on his ideas and theories.
The term behaviorism referred to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors (Staddon, 2001) . And this behavior could be researched scientifically . According to Pavlov, "Respondent Conditioning” resulted from the association of two stimuli, such as causing dogs to salivate at the sound a tuning fork. Consequently, Skinner developed “Operant Conditioning” where the “Stimulus-Response” association was elicited through selective reinforcement (rewards or punishments) to shape behavior. In this regard, behaviorism assumed that a learner was a passive recipient and responding to environmental stimuli. When applying the tenets of Behaviorism to teaching, Skinner asserted that the learner started off as a blank slate, and then his behavior was shaped via positive or negative reinforcement. Behaviorist
Skinner was a behaviorist who wanted to provide a method for understanding human behavior, thoughts, and emotions. Skinner believed that classical conditioning was to simplistic to be a complete explanation of the complex human behavior. Skinner believed the best way to understand any behavior is to look directly at the causes of an action and its consequences. He defined this approach as operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is defined as “ the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again” (B. F. Skinner, 2011). The behavioral model observes human behavior as a practical and useful response. This model acknowledges that every behavior has a purpose and has advanced from the earlier stages of a person's understanding. Skinner created a way to allow individuals the ability to avoid negative behaviors. His theory uses positive and negative reinforcements while covering affective punishments to make sure a student's bad behavior does not turn into a pattern. According to our textbook, “one defining characteristic of the behavioral model is that it views behavior from a functional perspective in terms that are both measurable and observable (Wheeler, 2014,p.17).”