The Long Term Effects of Bullying Among Teenagers

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Theoretical Framework
Often times in the human services career field or any other career field, when it comes to finding the reasoning behind an issue and or a prevention and intervention plan for major issues, such as bullying, that are affecting individuals and the society, it is important that theoretical frameworks are used. According to the 2010 statistics, with bullying becoming a rapidly growing issue and concern affecting both youth and adults, the crime of bullying will not be going away anytime soon. Bullying is performed in several different forms ranging from physically, verbally, and even cyber within our school systems, work places, and on college/ university campuses. Which in turns causes both short-term and long-term effects; there are about 160,000 children that miss school every day out of fear of being bullied (Info On Preventing Bullying, Harassment, Online/Social Bullying, and School Bullies, 2013). However, in the efforts to intervene and prevent bullying there are numerous amounts of theoretical frameworks that could be used.
Ttofi & Farrington (2008) suggested that, when exploring both the long-term and short-terms effects of the bullying, the Defiance theory by Sherman would be sufficient in providing a theoretical framework. The defiance theory is a theory of criminal sanction that anticipates that there are four necessary conditions for defiance to occur: (a) the sanction must be perceived as unfair; (b) the offender must be poorly bonded; (c) the

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