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The Medical Model: Long-Term Care

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The medical model, which originated in the 1950's, delivered high‐quality, standardized care to a large number of individuals. The care provided in long-term care facilities has traditionally been based on a medical model. This is characterized by nursing units with centralized nursing stations and long, doubly loaded corridors with shared bedrooms and bathrooms. Often, the finishes and ambiance are institutional and bare, and the setting provides few opportunities for residents to personalize their environments. Residents follow a rigid routine that dictates when they eat and when they sleep. The medical model involves the use of medical jargon, which can be problematic for residents and families. The medical model also focused on the individual’s…show more content…
Developed by Dr. William Thomas in 1992, the Eden Alternative aims to decrease older adults loneliness, helplessness, and boredom (Tavormina, 1999). Since it originated, many facilities intended on improving the quality of life for older adults and have therefore adopted key elements of the model. The Eden Alternative focuses on improving the quality of life of nursing home residents and creating a homelike setting by enabling the older adults to interact with pets, plants, and children by empowering staff to bring about these changes (Coleman, et al., 2002). The benefits of implementing such a model include decreases in behavioral incidents and use of restraints, as well as in staff absenteeism and turnover. A series of behavioral studies conducted before and after Eden implementation at Providence Mount St. Vincent, a large senior-living care facility in Seattle, also found increases in older adults satisfaction and activity engagement (Boyd, 2003; Thomas, 2003). Qualitative interviews conducted at two other facilities in the United States revealed older adults’ beliefs that their lives had improved, and that the goals of alleviating their loneliness, helplessness, and boredom had been achieved (Kruschke, 2006; Parsons, 2004). It is important to understand older adults thoughts, but also important to gain an insight on the clinical aspect as
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