The Origin Of Tourism During The Twentieth Century

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The tourism from its beginning has manifested itself over the centuries in different shades, but the greatest common denominator was the movement of people to meet their needs. As claimed by Graburn (1983, quoted in Shaprley, 2008, pp. 1-23), ‘Tourism cannot be viewed as one monolithic, static sort of phenomenon’. The history of tourism opened with a restricted number of tourists who could afford to travel for the purpose of leisure and pleasure, in particular during the seventieth and eighteenth centuries with the Grand Tour and development of spas. Over the nineteenth century, the figure of Thomas Cook laid the foundations for tourism understood as a mass phenomenon. However with the arrival of mass tourism in the twentieth century marked the watershed between the elitism of the previous centuries and the tourism accessible to the masses. As argued by Towner (1995, pp. 340) tourism over the latter half of the twentieth century ‘spreading socially from the upper classes, down through the middle ranks and ultimately to the mass working classes’. This essay looks in particular the events that have revolutionized the ‘make tourism’ by European tourist during the twentieth century. It also looks to the influences that the trends examined had on tourist behavior and his openness to new habits in relation to the management of his leisure time. The impact of these innovations towards the concept of tourism in a contemporary way will be analyses throughout the essay leading to a
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