The Positive Relationship Between Violence And Violence In Professional Ice Hockey

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Fighting in hockey is often a polarizing topic. Hockey is a unique game, in which fights extract a loud ovation from the spectators. Fans attend for a variety of reasons. Attendance at NHL games has been increasing in recent years. Goal scoring and violence are the two main factors fans associate with professional ice hockey. Violence occurs in hockey through body checks, slashes and the most popular form, fighting. Violence and fighting have been shown to have a positive impact on attendance. Violence is measured as the average number of penalty minutes. Penalties are broken down into two categories: major and minor. The National Hockey League has taken the opposite stance with a fan-favorite attribute, violence, and they have attempted to decrease the amount of fighting through such rules such as the “instigator”. The instigator is known as a player whom the officials blame to have started the fight. “Recent research on the National Hockey League (NHL) has focused on treating violence as a “goods characteristic”, an attribute of the product deliberately fostered by teams to generate revenue” (Jones, Stewart & Sunderman, 1996). Specifically, one goods characteristic hypothesis is that there is a direct positive relationship between violence and game attendance (Jones, Stewart & Sunderman, 1996). Hence, there is a positive relationship between violence and revenue. The NHL tolerates more violence than any other league includes the NFL and NBA. However, the

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