Ecology of Infectious Disease
HIV Public Health Campaign Purpose of the Guide to HIV Infection for Healthcare Professionals
Presented on pages 1 through 3 is a mock guide that will be handed out to public health professionals for the purpose of identifying and treating those afflicted with HIV. General Information on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Specified Information for the Healthcare Professional
Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is a single stranded positive sense RNA retrovirus that infects CD4+ T-Cells, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells. (Viral Zone) Information concerning HIV’s routes of transmission, and epidemiology, as well as the course of the disease can be found below.
From intravenous drug users, to famous basketball players like Magic Johnson, from preteens to middle aged adults HIV affects a wide range of individuals. Like many viral infections, however, HIV does show some general trends in infection. For instance in the United States there are roughly 23,000 more male diagnoses of HIV than Females.((Epidemiology) Also in the United States, Male to Male sexual contact is responsible for 64% of cases of HIV in the male category, the most popular way for females to contract HIV is through Heterosexual contact with an infected male. (Epidemiology) Additionally from 2008 to 2012 African Americans made up roughly 46% of diagnosed cases of HIV infection.(Epidemiology) It should be noted that there is a
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HIV has affected people all across the world. HIV comes with physical and mental symptoms. The body symptoms include skin flaking off, being dry, skin peeling off (Saliba 23) , fingernails falling off (32), and weight loss (14). Mentally it is hard to sleep, people become weak, and are tired all the time (23). People all across the world are infected with this disease, and the problem with this is the fact that most do not even know they have it. The most people who are infected each year are African Americans, gays, or bisexuals. 10,315 African Americans were infected in 2015. The U.S.A. has estimated about 1.1 million are infected with the disease. Equally to about 12,333 deaths happened in 2014 from AIDS related diseases, and 6,721 deaths from AIDS directly. Although there are a large amount of people getting infected, on the other hand eighteen percent of the population with HIV is declining since 2008-2014 (“U.S. Statistics”). In the world about 33.2 million people worldwide have HIV, with 22.5 million people in sub Saharan Africa are living with this condition, one out of nine people who live in South America have HIV or AIDS (Saliba 8).
The term Human Immunodeficiency Virus is commonly known as (HIV), which is a virus that attacks the immune system of humans by destroying the amount of CD4 cells in their bodies. Without CD4 the human body is unable to fight against diseases, which can lead to Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome known as AIDS for short. The first case of the HIV/AIDS virus in the U.S. occurred in the early 1980’s. The first spark of the virus was found in San Francisco with couple of homosexual Caucasian American males. Today African Americans account for the largest proportion of HIV and AIDS in this country, represent approximately 13% of the U.S. population, but accounted for an estimated 44% of new HIV infections in 2010(the last year a study was
HIV or the human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that has a negative impact on the immune system of the body and the immune system in a person's body is increasingly weak. So let us know Symptoms HIV.
African-Americans are the ethnic group most affected by HIV/AIDS. Ironically african-americans represent 14% of the population of the United States , but represent 44% across the gender line. African-american men represent 70% of HIV infections among the ethnic group, however african-american women are also highly at risk of HIV infection. Indeed they have a rate of infection that is 15 times greater than the rate for caucasion women (HIV among African-Americans, 2012). Most African-american women (85%) are infected with HIV through heterosexual sex, often with partners, who claim to be
Many people are unaware of their health status further increasing transmission of disease in young adult African American(AA) women age 18-24. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) infects and also destroy blood cells (i.e. lymphocytes) that the body need to fight off infection (Mays 2011). African American women HIV positive, age 18-24 the magnitude of issue of the health disparity in this particular population will be addressed along with the many factors of social and health determinants. The health concern is towards the increase of transmission among young AA mothers and their children who are the health outcomes in many ways than one. The many social and health determinants that affect the women today are on going cycles that have yet to be broken. African American women make 64% of new infection cases for HIV. African american obtain a vulnerability unlike other minorities. The health population’s culture and stigma has played an important role in the community. The concern for AA women is the increase of new cases and most importantly the spread of the disease to these women’s children. The mortality rate of AA women with HIV is 47.1% as of 2012. (Siddiqi 2015)
CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infects cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes (T cells) and macrophages. HIV has an envelope and contains two copies of single-stranded RNA as the genome. Within the viral capsid are important viral enzymes called reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease. The HIV virus has a spike protein that is called gp120, and the host cell receptor is CD4+. HIV belongs to a class of viruses called retroviruses. Retroviruses are RNA viruses, and to replicate or reproduce, they must make a DNA copy of their RNA through transcription and translation. It is the DNA genes that allow the
Experts agree that understanding these statistics can help to make the claim that the HIV virus is a heterogeneous one; significantly affecting certain populations more than others. This is especially true for African Americans (Sorvillo 930). However, mere statistical evidence is not enough to effectively declare this a health inequity. Further research into the virus amongst the population must be explored.
Department of Health & Human Services the group of people who are disproportionately affected by HIV are African Americans Gay and Bisexual Men. From 2005 to 2014, diagnoses increased 22% among all African Americans Gay and bisexual men and 87% among young African Americans and gay and bisexual men. By the end of 2013, an approximation of 493,543 gay and bisexual men were living with the HIV infection. Of those, 152,303 (31%) were African American, 210,299 (43%) were white, and 104,529 (21%) were Hispanic/Latino (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2016). Socioeconomic factors limited access to quality health care, lower income and educational levels, and higher rates of unemployment and incarceration may place some African American gay and bisexual men at higher risk for HIV than men of some other races/ethnicities.
According to recent statistics from the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.2 million individuals in the United States have HIV (about 14 percent of which are unaware of their infection and another 1.1 million have progressed to AIDS. Over the past decade, the number of HIV cases in the US has increased, however, the annual number of cases remains stable at about 50, 000 new cases per year. Within these estimates, certain groups tend to carry the burden of these disease, particularly the gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and among race/ethnic groups, Blacks/African American males remain disproportionately affected. (CDC)
Despite advances in screening and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the last 30 years, HIV remains a significant global issue (World Health Organization [WHO], 2015; Yagoda & Moore, 2016). The United States (US) experienced a brief decline in new HIV cases, but total HIV incidence has failed to decrease meaningfully in the past 25 years (Yagoda &Moore, 2016). According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) (2015), there are approximately 56,000 new cases of HIV per year and that number has been holding steady over the last decade. Current strategies to prevent HIV transmission include antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-infected people, voluntary medical male circumcisions, HIV testing, harm reduction, and behavioral risk reduction (Baeten & Heffron, 2014).
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. A member of a group of viruses called retroviruses, HIV infects human cells and uses the energy and nutrients provided by those cells to grow and reproduce. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease in which the body's immune system breaks down and is unable to fight off certain infections, known as "opportunistic infections," and other illnesses that take advantage of a weakened immune system. When a person is infected with HIV, the virus enters the body and lives and multiplies primarily in the white blood cells. These are the immune cells that normally protect us from disease.
In 2012, there were 6,360 new diagnoses of HIV, contributing to a total of 128,805 cases reported by the end of 2012. Following the identification of AIDS in the UK in the early 1980s, a steady increase of the number of people were diagnosed with HIV. From 1987 to 1990 the total number of reported HIV diagnoses almost doubled, from 8,888 to 15,570. HIV/AIDS was initially concentrated among three 'high-risk ' groups - men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users and people who had receive blood products. Annual HIV diagnoses increased rapidly till 2004. Much of this rise is because of infections transmitted via heterosexual sex. Since 2005, the sum of people who picked up HIV through heterosexual contact has been reduced while new HIV diagnoses among MSM have been continuously increasing. These two routes of transmission now have similar annual figures. According to Public Health England (2013) ' HIV in the United Kingdom: 2013 report ', injecting drug use has played a smaller part in the HIV epidemic in the UK than it has in many other high-income countries. During 2012, a reported 120 people diagnosed with HIV acquired it through this transmission route. In the initial phases of the UK epidemic few HIV diagnose were of women. Unlike in other parts of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa, where more women are living with HIV than men, HIV diagnoses in the UK have persistently been majority-male.
HIV is a virus that is spread almost all over the world. Although in some places health care isn’t as developed and therefore it spreads more in those regions. Sub-Saharan Africa holds more than 70%, 25 million, of all HIV positive people in the world. Second highest is Eastern Europe together with Central Asia with 1.3 million. It is spread over most of the world, including Asia and the Pacific, the Caribbean, Central and South America, North Africa and the Middle East and Western and Central Europe (“The Regional Picture”).
Infections disease prevention and control and communicable and infectious disease risks are important topics that every student nurse should be exposed to during the nursing program. The impact and threats that these infectious diseases cause an effect on society and global level should be studied. Also, the economic principles to nursing and health care that public health contributes to.