Sludge could be produce in many ways, it can be from waste settlement to the dry process. Brick is one of the flexible product that gain attention from researcher to be incorporated with different type of sludge material such as waste water sludge, water treatment sludge, marble sludge, effluent treatment plants (textile industry) sludge and arsenic contaminated sludge.
2.1 Textile sludge
Jahagirdar et al (2013) discussed the reuse of textile mill sludge in burnt clay bricks. Textile mill sludge was mixed together with different proportion (5% to 35%) as the raw material in this study. The brick was fired at 600 to 800ºC and for 8, 16 and 24hours. Base on the result textile sludge can be added up to 15% as it gives compressive strength above 3.5N/mm2 and the water absorption ratio is less than 20%.
According to (Herek et al, 2012) investigated on incorporated the textile laundry sludge into a brick showed that sludge can be incorporate until a concentration of 20% in terms of the mechanical properties. The compressive strength for the brick was 3.73Mpa for the control brick and 4.62Mpa for the sludge brick. For the water absorption result had shown that 15.73% and 10.10% for control brick and sludge brick respectively. Besides, the produces brick are safe according to applied leaching and not exceed to the standard limits. (Baskar et al, 2006) discussed about characterization and reuse of textile effluent treatment plant waste sludge in clay bricks. In this study the
They are used extensively in the dye and printing industries, and 5-10% of the dyestuffs are lost in the industrial effluents (Sanroman et al., 2005). As for textile industries billions of littles of aqueous waste streams are generated every day. These effluents usually posses colour, high electrolyte concentration and a substantial amount of residual dyes that can produce environmental issues and problems. Colour is usually the first contaminant to be recognized in wastewater; a very small amount of dye in water (10-20 mg/l) is also highly visible and affects water transfarency and gas solubility of water bodies (Cameselle et al.,2005). These contaminated wastewater must first and foremost be treated before being released into the environment to avoid pollution and adverse impact. The treated wastewater must comply with the environmental regulatory standards set by the
Calcium silicate bricks are also called sand lime. They are often confused with concrete bricks but these are much harder and would not scrape quite so easily. Calcium silicate bricks are manufactured by mixing lime, sand or crushed silicaceous together, with enough water to allow the mixture completely hydrated to be moulded under high pressure. The bricks are then moved in and steam in autoclaved for three to fourteen hours to speed the chemical hardening. Pigments can be added during the mixing stage. In their natural state, calcium silicate bricks are white to a creamy off-white colour, but the addition of ochres (buff or cream colours), iron oxides (pink, red, brown or black) or chrome oxide (green) can enable a very wide variety of colours to be produced. It easily to cut thus increase its workable. The weight of calcium silicate bricks is light than clay brick, the density is about in 200-1000kg/m3, but it is rigid and sustainable for use of building material.
In some parts of the world, human waste is being used as agricultural fertilizer and it is known as biosolids. We have biosolids due to the wastewater treatment process. There are many advantages and disadvantages to the use of biosolids, however, I believe the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Biosolids create job opportunities, promote farming, is free and is a cost effective of disposal. Using biosolids can cause odours in the area and may affect health as well. Although biosolids can cause odour problems, farmers see it as a free source of fertilizer. It helps produce ample crops. Creating biosolids is a form of recycling which prevents humans from dumping it in landfills. Biosolids have been
Proper, sustainable disposal methods of coal ash or fly ash proposed by the scientific community include the recycled use of this byproduct from coal-burning energy plants and the transfer of current coal ash ponds unequipped with the proper monitoring equipment to be transferred to a certified location where it can be stored and accessed for future recycling attempts. To be properly equipped the site must contain the following: synthetic bedding liners, leachate collection systems and ground water monitoring. These systems and this solution have been proven to reduce the environmental threat these facilities impose onto the environment; proven to improve the environment by reducing greenhouse emissions with the replacement of coal ash for
Based on the sizing system and design pattern of commercial scrub market, the new prototype will be developed and applied the effective fabrics by considering the result from the fabric tests: hot-plate test and stain test. Specifically, I will prepare same fabrics in including highest Ret value and highest stain resistance grade from the result of fabric tests. And, I will make a new prototype using the flat pattern method in order to indicate how address the essential problems to ensure less transfer of pathogens in a new prototype.
From the ancient time marble is one of the most important materials used especially for decorative purposes. However its powder has bad effects on the environment, soil, water and health problems. Marble powder is produced from processing plants sawing and polishing of marble blocks. Some factories have water recycling plants containing flocculation tank and filter press unit. About 25% of the processed marble is turn into dust or powder form. About 7,000,000 tons of marble have been produced in the world. Disposal of the marble powder material of the marble industry is one of the environmental problems worldwide today. The refining of some fresh and hardened properties of concrete is successfully and economically achieved by utilizing and
Dyeing and finishing is the way to make my garment. Dyeing and finishing process, due to inefficient.dyeing, each year more than 200,000 tons of dye loss. However, the environmental legislation allows the industry to remove the pigment from the.dye-bearing wastewater before it is discharged into the water. Also,.the demand for textiles has also increased, the comparability of their products is rising, and the use of synthetic fibers is also rising too. Dyes are.working together to tackle the sewage one of the most important sources of the.severe current pollution problems. The
Nonhazardous industrial wastes are various levels of wastes that are as result of industrial activity of producing goods and products but are within manageable levels that are not harmful (Letcher & Vallero, 2011). The nonhazardous industrial wastes are in form of solid, liquid, semi-liquid or gaseous materials from the industries. The examples of nonhazardous industrial wastes include sludge from water supply treatment plant, wastewater treatment plant, and air pollution control facility.
Biosolids are derived primarily from a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage sludges. Biosolids do not contain the coarse grit and screenings removed from raw wastewater during preliminary treatment steps or ash generated from incineration of sewage
In the following decades lime and cement injections were the most widely used methods for stabilization of clay. However, hydration starts while water and cement are mixed But when water reaches cement, hydration happens and hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), aluminates (CHA) and lime (Ca(OH)2) would be generated which would and cause a rise in pore water pH. In 1971,  found the reactivity of clay minerals with acids and alkalines and afterward the usability of other chemicals other than lime and cement was investigated. Also, for reducing the stabilization costs, replacing cement with low cost waste materials has been studied. Moreover, the effect of portland cement manufacturing on amount of greenhouse released in the atmosphere and consequently, global warming has been another reason for finding a
The definition of high strength changes over the years as concrete strength used in the field increases. Any construction activity requires several materials such as concrete, steel, brick, stone, glass, clay, mud, wood, and so on. However, the cement concrete remains the main construction material used in construction industries. For its suitability and adaptability with respect to the changing environment, the concrete must be such that it can conserve resources, protect the environment, economize and lead to proper utilization of energy. To achieve this, major emphasis must be laid on the use of wastes and byproducts in cement and concrete used for new constructions. The utilization of recycled aggregate
The influent, after screening and decanting is stored to the flow and organic load equalization tank and then inflows at a rate of QF = 80m3 d-1 to the SNdN activated sludge system. The SNdN system actually functions as an autonomous treatment plant where oxidation of organic pollutants, nitrification/denitrification and suspended solids sedimentation are taking place. Furthermore a sludge recycling from the secondary clarifier to the aeration tank is performed so as to ensure the required microbiological load (5000 ± 450 mg L-1). The aeration tank of the SNdN activated sludge system operates under low D.O. concentration (between 0,2 to 0,7 mg L-1). According to Mercalf and Eddy (2003), under low D.O. concentration conditions, low nitrification rates result, as the activated sludge floc will be partially aerobic. Denitrification occurs in the anoxic zones within the floc particles due to oxygen depletion. These conditions results nitrogen removal in a single aeration tank, referred as simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (Mercalf and Eddy, 2003). In such systems, although usually both nitrification and denitrification are occurring at low rates, relative high SRT and HRT values achieves significant nitrogen removal (Mercalf and Eddy, 2003). The SRT and HRT values of the SNdN system studied are 29 and 0,75 days respectively.
The disposal of untreated wastewater coming from the industries into the water bodies will pollute the water bodies because of its high concentrations. So, the wastewater produced from the industry should be treated properly to meet the permissible limits given by central and state pollution control boards. Therefore it is necessary to treat the wastewater properly with the help of an appropriate treatment plant. However, the treatment plant even though properly planned may not work satisfactory because of several reasons. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the treatment plant considering individual treatment unit in the entire treatment flow. In the present work emphasis has been given to the study of the performance of treatment facilities because of its importance in the conventional treatment of wastewater. Hence, the literature review related to the evaluation of the entire treatment process along with biological treatment process particularly suspended growth process Activated Sludge Process (ASP), attached growth process Trickling Filter (TF) and a combination of the both suspended and attached growth process Hybrid Reactor (HR) is presented in the following sections of this chapter.