The role of gender, individual trait, and emotion in response to advertisements using violent vs. non-violent images and messages to promote mediated MMA consumption.
Sang Yoon Ryu
Over the past few decades, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) industry has dramatically increased (Kim et al, 2008; Lim et al., 2010; Damon et al, 2009; Andrew et al, 2009; Kwak, & McDaniel, 2013). The sport exceeded boxing and wrestling as the preferred combat sport among young people (Lafayette & Hibbered, 2006). The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), which is the most popular MMA-promotion company in the MMA industry, has successfully arrived at media-consumption by the pay-per view and being shown in the prime time on TV. It also has expended their …show more content…
For example, Sargent et al. (1998) found that males are more enjoyable for combative sports (e.g., boxing, karate, football, ice hockey) since males assume attracted to violent and aggressive exposure. On the other hand, female preferred stylistic sports (e.g., gymnastics, figure skating, and tennis) since females seem preferring elegance of athletic displays.
Some research also indicated that individual differences (sensation seeking; SS) can be variance on the consumption of televised sports (McDaniel, 2003; Zuckerman, 1988; 1994). The perception of sensation seeking, which is a biologically determined personality, was related to optimum stimulation level (OSL) and optimum level of arousal (OSL) which helps explain media consumer behavior characters like media consumption and content preferences (Kassarjian & Sheffet, 1991). Sensation seeking suggests that a demand for stimulation and arousal explain individual’s preference, and react to media violence (Goldstein, 1999; McDaniel, 2003; Zuckerman, 1988; 1994). High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer graphically violent content (e.g., Aluja-Fabregat 2000, Aluja & Torrubia, 1998; Schierman & Rowland, 1985; Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, sensation seeking was positively connected to violent combative sports (e.g., boxing, karate) for both males and females. Therefore, we can estimate that HSS are more interested in violent image and message of
Mixed Martial Arts is the fastest growing sport in the world. Mixed Martial Arts (or MMA) is a combat sport that combines every and any fighting technique in a bout. To look closer at this sport as a discourse community, we will break down the sport into 5 different categories. We will take a look at the goals and values of MMA, the typical fighting styles or genres of MMA, the general rules of MMA, tasks and roles of each MMA community, and the targeted audience of MMA.
In order to thoroughly understand sports media, it is critical to understand the way in which sports media impacts its consumers. Millington and Wilson (2010) explores the impact of sports media by focusing on its impact on a group of boys in a Vancouver High School. Millington and Wilson (2010) analyze the way in which sports media impacts ones’ activity in physical education and the way in which one interprets sports media. Through their research, Millington and Wilson (2010) found that young boys are equally susceptible to the impacts of both physical education and sports media. While the impacts may vary, both sports media and physical education promotes the importance of masculinity in sports and general society (Millington & Wilson, 2010).
Throughout world history people have enjoyed watching two men compete in hand to hand combat. Professional boxing made its debut here in America around the turn of the 20th century. Unlike boxing, mixed martial arts is a relatively new sport. Both sports are very technical and require their fighters to be in superb condition. Many fighters train all their life to make it big, but few ever get there. Although both sports are immensely popular, one stands alone as the dominant sport. In this paper I 'll prove that the sport of MMA is more technical, more exciting, and much safer than boxing.
American culture assumes a great difference in the way men and women experience emotions. Women are assumed to be far more emotional than men, both in experiencing the emotions internally, as well as expressing them to the outside world. While the genders may differ in how they express their emotions, men and women do not inherently differ in the frequency of emotionality. Men are not emotionless, and women do not overcompensate for men's lack of emotion.
In the discussion portion of the article the authors discuss the lowered reaction to the violent images in the video following the 20 minutes of violent video game stimulation. They also discuss the fact that results were quite dramatic across the different individuals and attitudes toward violence. They also give insight into their results and the implication of the GAM concerning the prevalence of lowered arousal levels to violence acts following the violent stimuli via video games. Using the GAM they discuss implications such as people’s lowered likeliness to respond a victim in a violent situation if they are not in an aroused state in the midst of the violent act.
Within sport, as throughout society, gender differences exist. The socially constructed phenomenon of gender dictates a dichotomous system whereby females are feminine and males are masculine. Focusing on females specifically, society determines the feminine traits and roles ascribed to this gender. Being domesticated, slender, passive and heterosexual are a part of the desirable appearance that society has formed surrounding femininity (Wolf, 1991). On the other side of the dichotomy is the masculine realm that sport plays into. Sport is fuelled by muscle, power and aggressiveness, which are behaviours and images associated to masculinity. Sport therefore, defies all existing female gender ideals. It would be assumed that females have no place within this institution due to the gender clash. However, female athletes do exist, and many are very successful. For this to work, sport has established and reinforced the social constructions of gender that exist in society. Female athletes are viewed as inferior and are pushed into gender appropriate sports. Furthermore, they are often labeled as masculine until they can prove otherwise, and so great attempts are made to reassert femininity. The stigma associated to being masculine or homosexual for female athletes is so great that many have become irrationally fearful of this label. The sexualisation of the female body and overt displays of heterosexuality are used in
Throughout many years there has been a great change of gender roles of men and women in our society, and especially in the world of sports. Over the last couple years female athletes have really strived to gaining equal representation and media coverage as much as the male athletes do. Female athletes are also starting to participate in more male dominated sports such as, MMA, hockey and even golf. These few sports have been perceived as “manly sports” which usually makes women feel that they shouldn't participate because they're not masculine enough. Even though there are many female athletes who feel discouraged to playing “manly sports” there are also plenty of female athletes who are trying to show younger generations that it's okay to participate and compete in sports that aren't necessarily “feminine sports”. The way that gender roles have been affecting sports for a long time are through behaviors, stereotypes and the perception of male and female athletes.
Women and men play various sports because they as Americans want to experience the excitement of playing for fun, and doing something they love. The idea of what men and women can do for fun in sports has been shaped by the American society in many different ways through the media, schooling and education, and professional sports organizations. America portrays women playing field hockey and doing synchronized swimming while men do boxing, and body building. If a woman chooses to do boxing because to her it is fun and if a man chooses synchronized swimming because he likes it, they face many cultural costs and benefits of choosing this sport. Society does not like change and
In her text Passionate Men, Emotional Women: Psychology Constructs Gender Difference in the 19th Century, historian Stephanie A. Shields delineates the ways in which the Western modern project required in its logic of construction a need to create and reproduce an epistemological, discursive, and pseudo-scientific dichotomous relationship between the genders. Specifically, Shields emphasizes the ways in which a certain dogmatic praxis of evolutionary theory, in juxtaposition with social science, worked to produces a science of psychology that in turn generated a hierarchical understanding of gender relations, premised on the politics of emotions and the mind/body divide.
But first, let's have a quick look at what MMA is. MMA is short for Mixed Martial Arts. It's a fighting sport with lots of fans and several shows like UFC, Bellator, M1 Global and Elite XC. UFC has become so famous that it's even threatening boxing's supremacy in popularity rankings. MMA fighters employ techniques, holds, grappling moves, submission techniques, kicks and punches from a wide variety of martial arts and from Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), Muay Thai and Krav Maga (the Israeli Defense Force close quarters combat technique) amongst others. Maybe
Sports become stereotyped as gender-neutral, feminine, or masculine based on conceptions regarding gender, gender differences, and beliefs about the appropriateness of participation due to gender (Colley et al., 1987; Csizma, Wittig, & Schurr, 1988; Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986). Sports labeled as feminine seem to be those that allow women participants to act in accordance with the stereotyped expectations of femininity (such as being graceful and nonagressive) and that provide for beauty and aesthetic pleasure (based on largely male standards). A sport is labeled as masculine if it involves the following: 1) attempts to physically overpower the opponent(s) by bodily contact; 2) a direct use of bodily force to a heavy object; 3) a
This question judges the social effects of a repetitive sequence of medial entertainment in relation to the increase in an individual’s aggressive behavior. The violence of today’s video games are far more visually gruesome then they were ten years ago. An example is the modern popular game Goldeneye 007, whose bad guys no longer disappear in a cloud of smoke when killed. Instead they perform an elaborate maneuver when killed. For example, those shot in the neck fall to their knees and then their face while clutching at their throats. These graphic games can increase an individual’s aggressiveness by portraying the act of a murder, as in Goldeneye 007. By answering this question, we can become more aware and be able to identify possible
The genre of MMA was chosen because it is a relatively new sport, but despite that, it has been gaining grave amounts of publicity in the sporting world. Unlike other long-established, mainstream sports such as soccer and basketball, the sport of MMA only commenced approximately 20 years ago, back in 1993. The power of social media has revolutionised the way humans
These men sparked interest in the sport during the 1980’s and managed to grab the attention of many people. Today, the sport has arguably lost its popularity due to several reasons. To start, there are less boxers that are known public figures than there once was. Today, there are two “top” boxers: Manny Pacquiao and Floyd Mayweather. Floyd, worth over 300 million dollars, has managed to gain this fortune through several factors. First, boxing makes millions of dollars over paper-view, but one should realize that these constant paper-view fights, that usually cost over fifty dollars to watch, are not used in any traditional sports that are shown on cable. Secondly, boxers make money not only from paper-view, but from the millions of dollars’ top boxers ask for if they win the fight. However, this high cost to watch the sport often deters fans from watching every main event. The last reason boxing has gained the reputation of a declining sport is the growing competition between other fighter sports, such as Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and Ultimate Fighting Championship
As evidence has shown, children view many violent scenes while watching television, movies, or playing video games, but the question still remains: What psychological effect does violence in the media have on children? Research over the past 10 years has consistently shown that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between media violence and real-life aggression (Strasburger 129). Violence in the media can lead to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch the various programs. Of course, not all children who watch television, or movies, or play video games develop aggressive behavior. However, there is a strong correlation between media violence and aggressive behavior. A study, published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, examined how children's television viewing practices are related to aggressive behaviors. The results revealed that children who reported watching greater amounts of television per day had higher levels of violent behavior than children who reported lesser amounts of television viewing (Singer 1041). Witnessing violence is an important determining factor in violent behavior. The media serves as a means for children to witness violence. According to Bandura's Social Learning Theory, children imitate behavior that they see on television, especially if the person performing the behavior is attractive or if the