The Sleep Disorders

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Sleep disorders are an underestimated public health concern considering that fifty to seventy million Americans are affected. Technological advances in the field of sleep have facilitated various theories to explain the need for and the purpose of sleep. Scientist have uncovered many types of sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy. Sleep disorders affect men ,women, children, the elderly, and the obese in different ways. Factors such as the number of children and the effects of menopause have been studied to determine their effects on sleep. Various treatments have been utilized ranging from non-pharmacologic to pharmacologic methods. Scientist have pinpointed areas of the brain that are involved in sleep…show more content…
The diagnosis of primary insomnia has required a patient to report both a lack of sleep and decreased functioning during wakefulness. Physiological changes reported by patients who have chronic primary insomnia are consistent with sympathetic nervous system activation. Chronic physiologic arousal can produce poor sleep, dysphoria, and anxiety. Chronic physiologic arousal can make patients susceptible to hypertension, alcohol abuse, and a predisposition for depression. Researchers do not agree on why we sleep therefore different sleep theories have been presented. Repair and Restoration Sleep Theory maintains that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep restores physiologic functions and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is key to restoring mental functioning. There are multiple aspects of support for this theory. After sleep deprivation there is a need for longer REM sleep and there is an increased rate of cell division. Sleep is important to maintain normal immune function and fight off disease and infections. The Adaptive Theory focuses on the cycle of energy expenditure and conservation of energy as a necessity for energy conservation. Supporting this theory are the fact that animals with few predators sleep more than animals with many natural predators. A third and most popular theory is the Information

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