At one month of pregnancy the baby is still any embryo and it is made up of two layers which will soon produce into body parts and organs. In the first two weeks of pregnancy a women isn’t actually pregnant because the women’s body is preparing for ovulation as usual. You usually ovulate (release an egg) around two weeks after the first day of your period this depends on the length of your period. Then during the third week after the first day of your last period your fertilised egg moves across the fallopian tube towards the womb. The egg starts off as a single cell but it divides multiple times. By the time the egg reaches the womb it becomes the mass of 100 cells which is known as an embryo. In the fourth week of pregnancy the embryo grows and develops in the lining of the womb. The outer cells reach out and link themselves with the mothers blood supply. The inner cells form
Even though most people think the scientific terms, fetus or embryo, is talking about the cells or tissues, the terms really refer to the stages of development. This means that the fetus is not just a small piece of tissue, but a human life. “The beginning of a single human being from a biological viewpoint is a simple, straightforward matter—- the beginning is conception.” (Bowes).
Biological development of a fetus is vary rapid and complex over the nine-month period in the womb. When both the male spermatozoon and the female ovum combine it forms what is called a zygote which holds the twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. The zygote or the embryo undergoes cell division and makes its way to the uterine wall to implant itself, this process is completed about ten days after conception. By the end of the eighth week the organ systems have formed and human characteristics can start to be noticed. From the eighth week until birth the embryo is now labeled a fetus. Quickening can occur from the sixteenth week until birth, this is where the mother can feel the fetus moving. Around the twenty-second week viability can take place, this is where the fetus can survive outside the womb. The nine-month period of being pregnant is split into different trimesters. With the different trimesters there are different abortion procedures can be used to remove the fetus.
When an embryo becomes a fetus at eight weeks, it is approximately 3 centimeters; by the time the fetus is considered full-term, he or she may be 50 centimeters (Brisbane 60). The fetal stage, that takes place during week 9 to birth, result in a whole bunch of changes. (Brisbane 61). During the fetal stage, all parts of the body mature, and the overall of the baby size increases. Although all of the organ systems were formed during embryonic development, they continue to develop and grow during the fetal stage as well. During the third month, the reproductive system becomes developed and the sex of the baby becomes apparent (Staff). For girls, the ovarian follicles begin to form and for boys the prostate gland. Throughout months four through six, the heartbeat grows stronger and other body systems become further developed (Brisbane 63). Features such as fingernails, hair, eyelashes and toenails form. During the period from seven months until birth, the fetus continues to develop, put on weight, and prepare for life outside the womb (Brisbane 64). The lungs begin to expand and contract, preparing the muscles for breathing (Brisbane 64). The time in which the baby is born is a very critical. In some situations, a baby can be born as early as 7 months. When a baby is born too early, his ar her organs are not usually fully formed. This can result in many complications and health problems. Including, If premature pregnancy is the case, the baby would need some intensive care in hospitals. If the baby survives the stages, at the end of the nine month of pregnancy the baby will turn to a head-down position to prepare for birth. If the baby is not in the head-down position and in breech position a cesarean section may be required, which can cause many more complications. If a baby passes all these crucial factors, it is guaranteed to be born
When a woman gives birth there is a massive change in her hormones, and these changes evoke maternal behavior . For example, oxytocin also known as the “bonding hormone or the love hormone” is a chemical messenger that is released into the brain in response to social contact, it’s especially noticeable with skin-to skin contact such as breast-feeding . Oxytocin not only provides health benefits, but it also promotes bonding, such as between a breast feeding mother and her infant, and creates a desire for more contact with the individual evoking the release . However, it’s not necessary for maternal behavior
For almost all of the previous 25 years roughly, the knowledge of pregnancy, labor, and delivery has changed little for some women. But change is arriving to the most traditional establishing, the hospital.
The concept fetus is used to denote the unborn human from the end of the eighth week after conception to the moment of birth, as distinguished from the earlier embryo (the product of conception from implantation in the uterus through the eighth week of development). A fetus contains all the organs and has the basic human form. (Rand)
Near term, the pregnant woman starts to have many hormonal changes, which will prepare her to give birth; however, prostaglandin plays the most critical role in this process. When the pregnant woman reach around 39 to 40 weeks of pregnancy, the fetus’ growth is completed as fetus’ organs are matured enough to start working on their own. Giving birth or what it is scientifically known as parturition or labor is a combination of hormonal and physiological changes that affect maternal tissue in order to facilitate the expulsion of the fetus through the birth canal. This labor process is divided into 4 stages, and it is initiated when fetal and placental corticotropin-releasing hormone increases and down-regulate progesterone hormone. Progesterone
According to parents.com, after conception, a fetus begins to develop rather quickly. In the fifth week of pregnancy, a baby’s heart begins to beat. A baby also develops three distinct layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These three layers will eventually form the body systems that are necessary
First trimester: By 12 weeks of pregnancy the foetus will be fully formed. The ovum grows and develops certain important parts of the baby’s body such as spinal cord, nervous system, gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs in the first four weeks from conception. The heart starts beating and brain and other organs forms by eight weeks. At this stage, the face is formed and arms and legs start to move. The baby grows to 3 inches long and
Providing continuous physical and emotional support during labour can reducing maternal fear, stress, and anxiety and protect physiological birth (Steen, 2012). Research shows that fear and anxiety during labour and birth can be detrimental to physiological birth. An environment that women feel unsafe in may stimulate a surge of neuro-hormones that can influence both fetal and maternal physiology, causing irregularity of contractions, fetal distress and subsequent medical inteverntions (Fahy & Parratt, 2006). Conversly, maintaining an environment where women feel safe, protected and supported can facilitate favourable physiological performance (Fahy & Parratt, 2006). Midwives can do this by giving women one-on-one continuous support and placing her at the centre of care throughout childbirth (Steen, 2012). As observed in practice, by constantly reassuring the woman about her progress, her baby’s health and addressing any of her concerns, the midwife can provide a calm and relaxing environment that is conducive to the labouring woman (Buckley, 2015; Steen, 2012). The midwife worked with the woman, encouraging her throughout labour and birth by telling her that she was doing extremely well. The midwife also breathed in-tune with the woman while giving her a back massage, inducing a sense of comfort. The atmosphere was calm and this contributed to the woman garnering confidence in her ability to avoid medical pain relief. Downe (2008) noted that the positive impact of
These nonpharmacologic comfort measures work by providing distraction during uterine contraction. “According to the gate control theory of pain, only a limited number of sensations can travel along neural pathways at any one time, so when activities fill the pathway, pain is being inhibited”. (Leifer, 2012)
It has been shown through studies that exercising aids in strength, flexibility, muscle tone and endurance, all in which help in areas such as carrying extra weight, preparing for the physical stresses of labor and contributing in shedding the pounds postpartum (Gulino 2). Exercise also helps in relieving that excess weight gain, swelling, varicose veins, fatigue and leg cramps. It helps to prevent depression and establish confidence both before and after labor. Exercise lowers stress and improves emotional health. It has been shown through studies that women who exercise during pregnancy have shorter labors as well as a decreased need for painkillers and an epidural during labor and delivery (Hudson 1).
Birth of a child can be such a happy time, especially when the little one is very healthy. We all have seen the movies when a new child is born, some of us are lucky to see it first hand. Some of us do get goose bumps, me being one of them. It is just so exciting to see that little life come out of what has been in that big belly for nine months. We sometimes refer to the birth of a child as labor. If only it was as easy as the name sounds. However, it is not. There are three main stages in birth. The first stage is the longest stage that can last 12 to 14 hours with the first birth, and later births are shorter. Dilation and effacement of the cervix take place here. That is when the uterine contractions gradually become more frequent and