The Truth About Pancreatic Cancer Essay

1338 Words6 Pages
1.1 Pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease that is ranked fourth among cancer-related deaths in Norway. 31 Yearly 600-650 new cases are detected, corresponding to 7 per 100 000 inhabitant. The survival rate five years after diagnosis is very low, at only 5 %. 19 Approximately 90 % of patients diagnosed with advanced pancreatic cancer survive less than one year, with a median survival of 5-6 months. The high mortality rate is connected to late diagnosis, early metastasis and poor response to chemo- and radiotherapy. 34 Pancreatic cancer can be inherited, but 90 % of cases are considered sporadic. 19 The major histological type of pancreatic cancer is ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma which account for 80 % of the
…show more content…
3, 19
Evidence shows that some families have increased risk of pancreatic cancer, implying a genetic contribution. 28 The genetic base for this increased risk has not been identified yet, but mutations in BRCA2 and PALB2, among others, are associated with greater risk of disease 37. Only 5-10 % of patients have a family history of the disease. 19 It has been shown that in families with four or more cases of pancreatic cancer the risk of disease is 57 times higher than in families with no history of disease. 19
1.1.2 Stage and diagnostics
Pancreatic cancer tumors are staged according to tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classifications of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). The staging of tumors is based on tumor size and localization, and connected to resectability. 19 Further staging reflect whether lymph node metastasis (N stage) or distant metastasis (M stage) are present. Tumor stage, nodal stage and distant metastasis are combined into stages which tell about the overall disease. See Table 1 for complete overview of this staging strategy. 19
Table 1 Explanation of TNM classification of the AJCC for pancreatic cancer
Stage Tumor stage Node metastasis Distant metastasis Characteristics
IA T1 N0 M0 The tumor is limited to the pancreas, with a size smaller than 2 cm.
IB T2 N0 M0 The tumor is limited to the pancreas, with a size larger than 2 cm.
IIA T3 N0 M0 The

More about The Truth About Pancreatic Cancer Essay

Get Access