The Wastage ( Defects ) Through The Pdca Cycle By Using Dmaic Tool

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2. Project overview
This project aims to address the wastage (defects) through the PDCA cycle by using DMAIC tool. Figure 2.1: PDCA cycle
The project has the following phases:
1) Phase 1- Define: Initially the problem (defects occurring) is clearly and specifically defined. Consists of the project objectives, project team, process and the critical customer requirements
2) Phase 2- Measure: The present condition of the industry and quantifying the defects.
3) Phase 3- Analyze: Find out the root cause of the defects.
4) Phase 4- Improve: Solutions that are directly addressed as per the root cause.
5) Phase 5- Control: Sustain the improvements that are done through continual monitoring.

3. DMAIC – Define
3.1 Problem statement
The waste
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3.5 Process
The process is initially studied and the critical requirements of the customer (VOC) and the Critical to quality (CTQ) areas of the process were identified.
Table 3.1: Process of manufacturing cards in 123 cards intl.

Based on the customer expectation and the processes involved a QFD tools was plotted.
Figure 3.2: Quality function deployment based on customer expectation

From the above QFD the critical to quality area (CTQs) as per customer expectation could be identified.
It was found that Printing and laminating process were the major two critical categories with maximum impact with relevance to the voice of the customer.

4. DMAIC – Measure
Based on the high impact processes, the defects incurred in printing and laminating were studied and measured. The main defects were Tonality issues (color changes), spot formation on cards, blurry print bubbles due to lamination and scratches.
Table 4.1: Defects occurring high impact processes
Defect Jan-14 Feb-14 Mar-14 Apr-14 May-14 Total Defects Each defect % Cumulative defect % Tonality out of standard 8000 4000 5000 5000 4000 26000 54.96 54.96
Spots 5000 2500 6000 5000 500 19000 40.16 95.12
Blurry print 350 100 100 150 150 850 1.80 96.91
Bubbles 200 100 300 100 200 900 1.90 98.82
Scratches 60 100 100 200 100 560 1.18 100.00
Total defects 47310
These 5 defects were studied and measured analytically for 5 months and the percentage contributed by each

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