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The ZigBee Standards for Wireless Applications Essay

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Introduction
There has been a rapid growth and development in the wireless network filed from the past several years. Till now the main focus of wireless networking is to provide high-speed and long range applications. There are many applications which requires low data rates, long battery life, and in expensive solution. What the market need is a standard which meets all the requirements such as secure data communication, low data rates, long battery life and inexpensive. Many solutions have been proposed to satisfy these needs but they are very expensive. A new standard called ZigBee has developed by the ZigBee Alliance which is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for all wireless applications which satisfies all the needs in less cost.
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Why ZigBee?
 Standards based protocol
 Requires low cost
 Very low current drains
 It can be used globally
 Reliable and self healing
 Supports large number of nodes
 Easy to deploy
 Long battery life
 Security
ZigBee static Architechture Fig 1: ZigBee Static Architecture

 The MAC sub layer is responsible for handling single-hop reliable communications. It uses the security levels that are mentioned by the upper level layers.
 The network layer is capable of sending broadcast requests, manages routing, processing received messages. Outgoing frames will makes use of adequate key based on routing, if the key is available; otherwise, it uses the network key which will be used to protect the payload
 The application layer provides services to applications and ZDO. It offers key establishment. The application layer routes requests from devices to the trust center and network key renewals from the trust center to all devices. In addition to this, it maintains the security policies of the device.
ZigBee Device Types
A ZigBee network is comprised of ZigBee nodes. Zigbee nodes are nothing but zigbee devices. A zigbee node mainly consists of three parts 1) microcontroller 2) transceiver 3) antenna. It makes use of stack profiles that are implemented by software. A zigbee node supports multiple subunits, every subunit posses an application object. The application object is used to describe the function of the sub
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