Threats To Validity in Research Essay

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In every research there are always potential threats to validity and in the reviewed article Boffetta et al, there are several like; confounding, situation, and single group threats among others. Before we proceed with the explanation of the above identified threats to validity, perhaps it is important to first understand what validity is with respect to research methods and its key components. Validity is the greatest estimate of the certainty in conclusion or inferences, generally of cause and effect.1 One of the key features of determining cause and effect that Boffetta et al does not meet is the No Plausible Alternative Explanation, which is the fact that no other causes can lead to the hypothesized effect.1 In summary, the article Boffetta et al performed and evaluated of data from the study by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)1992-2000. The goal was see if relationships between high intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk existed.2 Boffetta et al, concluded that high fruits and vegetable intake was beneficial to cancer prevention. Also that there was no substantial evidence of high fruits and vegetables are linked to cancer risks as may be portrayed.
The No Plausible Alternative Explanation described earlier was a major issue in the Boffetta et al, in that even though they addressed other causes of cancer i.e. smoking, alcohol, they did not address others like the mutations and predispositions. Some…