Types Of Enthalpy Changes In Chemical And Chemical Changes

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Enthalpy changes in chemical and physical processes- M1 and D1

By sharing electrons, atoms within a molecule that are attracted to one another is called an intramolecular force. Between the molecules intermolecular force, the physical properties for example the melting points and boiling points, relate to the solubility and the strength of these force.
Protons are positive components and electrons are negative components. The attractive force that exists between the two is known as an intermolecular force due to the atoms and molecules of the substance. Intermolecular forces have four types:
Ionic forces – This is like the dipole-dipole interaction but it differs slightly as ions are used as well as polar molecules. ions are held together by electrostatic forces in ionic solids. The charges in an ion are attracted to each other because they are opposites. “This force is the strongest intermolecular force.” In a crystal lattice structure, the ion forces hold the ions together. Dipole Forces – When a molecule has two poles they are called dipoles or polar covalent molecules. The molecule will have a partial positive charge on one pole whilst the other pole will have a different charge that is partially negative. Therefore, the molecules will rearrange themselves so the charges are attracted to the opposite charge so it works.

Hydrogen Bonds- “when the hydrogen of an electronegative atom of one molecules is attached to an
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