In the year 2000 it was estimated that about 25 percent of people worldwide had hypertension and this number is expected to keep rising further increasing the risk for millions in developing cardiovascular disease. There are two main types of hypertension. Secondary hypertension is caused from an underlying disease in the adrenal or renal systems or by use of certain medications. It is resolved when the cause is treated or removed. Primary or essential hypertension is the most common type with the cause being unclear although the incidence is higher with age and weight.
The amount of blood the heart pumps and the amount of resistance the arteries have to blood flow determines the blood pressure. High blood pressure…show more content… Although both of these readings are important after the age of 60 the systolic reading is more significant due to the association with cardiovascular disease. Two to three blood pressure readings will be taken at separate appointments before a diagnosis of hypertension can be determined.
Although the causes of essential hypertension are unclear a number of factors have been known to increase blood pressure. Changes either from genes, behavioral, or the environment which disrupt the normal functions of the body may cause a rise in blood pressure. Other factors that increase blood pressure are kidney fluid and salt balances, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system activity, and blood vessel structure and function (Bolivar, 2013). Since blood pressure homeostasis is accomplished by multifactorial mechanisms if there is a change in one of these mechanisms another attempts to correct this change in order to maintain a normal blood pressure. When this system fails and blood pressure can no longer be normalized by this method than essential hypertension results.
The kidneys regulate the body’s salt balance by retaining sodium and water while excreting potassium. Any imbalance in the kidneys function will expand blood volumes causing blood pressure to rise. The renin-angiotension-aldosterone