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Vinca Alocar Cells: A Case Study

Decent Essays
1(i)High, because the appendix locates in abdominal cavity and near the right lower limb.

(ii)Low ,because the lungs locate in thoracic cavity.

(iii) Low,even though liver locates in abdominal cavity, it is not too near the right lower limb and it locates in epigastric region.

2. Vinca alkaloid molecules bind to the tubulin, preventing its formation. Tubulin in cells is to make spindle fibers which are microtubules. These microtubules provide cells with both flexibility and structure so they are flexible enough to divide and copy. Without spindle fibers, cells cannot divide. The vinca alkaloids prevent cancer cells from dividing successfully.As hair follicle cells need to divide continually in order to produce new cell that form hair
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(b)Pelvic bone or sternal bone

(c)In both blood of patient and donor, they have no AB antigens and both antibodies.Due to the different rhesus factor, the red blood cells of patent do not have antibodies to Rh factor as he is rhesus negative when the red blood cells of donor do have the Rh factor.But the red blood cell of the patient make antibodies to Rh factor when exposed to blood with rhesus positive, then it causes hemolysis so it is not suitable.

(d) Multipotent stem cells in red bone marrow or lymphatic tissue divide to produce specific stem cell such as myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells. Differentiation separates lymphoid stem cells from myeloid stem cells. The myeloid stem cell differentiate to other cells, which become erythrocyte, platelets, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes and neutrophils. The lymphoid stem cell gives rise to B lymphocyte which processes in bone marrow, T lymphocyte which processes in thymus and natural killer cell.

4(a) Eccrine sweat gland does not associate with hair follicles but sebaceous gland does.

(b) Eccrine sweat gland secrets sweat which contains waste and water but sebaceous gland secrets
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In bone,the calcium makes the bone stay strong so it can be hard enough to protect oragans like ribs protecting the heart , lung and enable it to provide support to our body like femur.In muscle, contraction and relaxation of the muscles occur due to quickly changing concentrations of calcium inside the muscle cells. Calcium will turned thin filament into an activated state through binding to troponin. The binding of between calcium and troponin changes its shape then the myosin binding sites on the actin are exposed so we can have movement and produce heat when the skeletal muscles contract. When the skin becomes broken, calcium works together with vitamin K and a fibrinogen in the clotting cascade.In contrast, without enough levels of calcium , blood will take longer to clot,then it will increase the chance of inflammation as the pathogens can get into body through the
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