We Must Educate Ourselves Before Passing Laws Restricting Cloning and Genetic Engineering

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Biotechnology and genetic engineering involve the cloning of animal cells and organisms, but they also involve the alteration of an organism in an effort to make it more perfect, whether it is a crop, an animal, or even a human being. Obviously the cloning of humans or the cloning of human cells is much different than the cloning of genetically superior livestock or a better quality, higher yielding food crop, and people throughout the world realize this. The cloning of human beings has become one of the worst fears in our society today and for that reason many laws have been passed throughout European countries and North America in an effort to ban human cloning. For most people, it becomes more of an issue of ethics and moral values …show more content…
These experiments were conducted using skin cells from frog embryos and used a method known as nuclear transplantation, or nuclear transfer. This process utilized a procedure known as enucleation in which the nucleus of an egg cell is removed and replaced with the nucleus of a parent cell. The new nucleus in the egg contains the same genetic material as the parent cell, and then, the fertilized egg becomes an embryo. The nucleus and all genetic material in the egg having been replaced with the genetic material of the parent cell, would now become an exact replica, or clone of the parent organism. John Gurdon, a molecular biologist at Oxford University in England, conducted further research using the method of nuclear transplantation in the 1960's and 1970's. In 1966, he was able to produce adult frogs using nuclei from tadpole intestine cells. Obviously, this proved that any cells, whether they be skin cells, blood cells, or even cells from an organism's intestinal tract could be used to create an exact replica of that creature.

In the early 1980s, a much simpler cloning procedure, which is known as artificial twinning, was developed. In this procedure, the early embryo is split into individual cells or groups of cells, which happens naturally with twins, triplets, and other multiple births. This obviously allows each new cell to develop into its own embryo, and then those embryos are
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