Utilitarianism as defined by MacKinnon and Fiala is a “normative theory that we ought to concern ourselves with the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people” (p.568). It is one of the most famous form of consequentialist ethics that is mainly focuses about the consequences of an action. An action is only right if it conforms to the greatest happiness (pleasure) principle and provides the best results for the majority of the people. An act is wrong if it results in unhappiness (pain or suffering) and does the contrary.
Aristotle starts off in his essay explaining the definitions of Good, Primacy of Statecraft and the study of Ethics. He defines good as where all things are to be aimed, for example health. He then defines Statecraft as citizens of a state, a country, and of the world need to do good for their own good but more importantly for the good of the state. He also characterizes various types of good. Finally, the definition on study of Ethics. This talks about the pure excellence of justice that involves the disagreements and agreements of uncertainty and certainty. Aristotle also talks about happiness and where a certain
Aristotle believed that it was important for an individual to live their life in a way that would nurture their growth and flourishing. Through a virtuous life, an actual person would contribute positively to the common good of all. As a result, the individual helps himself or herself live a successful life. If the common good is successful, all a part of the common good will flourish. Through being conscious about ones actions and living a respectable life, anyone can reach their ultimate goal of happiness, something Aristotle believes keeps everything in
Aristotle says humans need a clearer statement of what the best good is. Human beings already have happiness to chase after; but Aristotle believes there are different kinds of happiness. With the different types we get people trying to strive for different types of happiness and are maybe unclear as to which one to chase. This is where Aristotle says the confusion comes in. We need a clearer explantion of happiness and what it is. From reading book one we can see there are four subcatergories of happiness; which are material, formal, efficient and final. Aristotle is trying to get at which one is the most important one to us as human beings. It is really to see that humans want money, pleasure, and to be trusted and honored because we believe that these goods will lead us to being happy. It also seems that all other goods are ways towards finding
Ethics and ethical decision making play a large role in the duties of the coroner, everything they can affects someone or something. The main ethic would be confidentiality; the only topics that are not confidential are cause and manner of death. Any other information can only be given to legal next of kin. For example, if the media call asking about a homicide the only information the office will release is the cause and manner of death. However, if the decedent’s next of kin calls we are able to release any and all information to them.
When Aristotle first published his work entitled “Nicomachean Ethics”, you can imagine that numerous philosophers, scholars, and ordinary citizens were deeply contemplating his idea of the Highest Good Through the actions of virtue and reason, the act contemplation satisfies Aristotle’s characteristics as the Highest Good Being a self-sufficient, and complete activity, the ability to understand our function as human beings through contemplation achieves the Highest Good
Aristotle begins to question what is good? The good is explained to differ in different activities and arts, but shares a common ground because it appears to be for the sake of how things are done; a means to an end. Aristotle uses the example of medicine; its mean is to end in health. However, there are many different ends and humans chose some of them, as a means to something else, therefore not all ends are final ones. That which is chosen never as a mean to something else proves to be more final than that which is chosen for itself and something else. Therefore, Aristotle justifies that the mean that is always chosen for itself and not for means of something else is called the final. Aristotle uses this definition and applies it to happiness, since happiness is always chosen as an end in itself and never for the sake of something else. The thought of honor, pleasure and virtue being chosen as an end for itself may apply but can be assumed they lead to happiness as a means to an end.
Both Aristotle and Aquinas were prominent philosophers who wrote profound works that discussed the concept of the highest human good and how humans can achieve it. In Aristotle’s, Nicomachean Ethics, the highest human good is a state of constantly seeking knowledge as a way of achieving full capacity as a human. The writings of Aquinas are similar to Aristotle, but, in Treatise on Law, he discusses the type and elements of law. His discourse on law ultimately names the highest human good as being in the perfect community with God. Aquinas’s argument supports obedience to law, preexisting inclinations for the good, and a resolution. Aristotle requires that the person constantly seek knowledge and be at work, which can act as a positive force that drives humans to improve themselves.
It was Aristotle’s belief that everything, including humans, had a telos or goal in life. The end result or goal was said to be happiness or “eudaimonia”. He explained that eudaimonia was different for each person, and that each had a different idea of what it meant. Further, he said that people must do things in moderation, but at the same time do enough. The theory, of “the golden mean of moderation” was the basis to Aristotle's idea of the human telos and concluded that living a virtuous life must be the same for all
Aristotle always believed that there was a greater good above all of us that was a key part of humanity. After some time, it finally came to him. Aristotle believed that the greatest good for humans is that of happiness. Aristotle talked about all the key parts of being a human was and thought that being a human meant contemplative activity and “identifying living well and doing well with being happy.” (Aristotle 569). While trying to justify his claim, Aristotle mentioned and talked abut all the other goods out in the world. He talked about how every good seems to not have an end. That in most things we do there is a cycle and it really never ends. For instance you get paid then you go to the grocery store to get food. You get the food because
Aristotle lays down two key ideas with in his theory of “Human Nature”. The first idea is the ethnic qualities of man, which included the features of thought and body and is a development for contemplative excellence. The Second part of this theory is Aristotle gives the outlook that life with contemplations is the basis of a truly good life. This includes his views of how human incentives and the role of one’s qualities will lead one to living the good life. In “The Politics” Suzie Sparague introduces Aristotle’s well thought out argument, in which Aristotle argues that specific conceptions of “Human Good.” At the same time as the reader gets to this part of the book he/she is probably wondering what Aristotle means by human good. Human good as seen through the eyes of Aristotle is the ability to be morally sound, or to be just in the actions we make as humans.
Seeking to understand in this week’s reading, I have chosen to focus discussing how do we define good? This subject is broken down in the book ‘The Nicomachean Ethics’ by Aristotle. His teachings bring to light various interesting concepts and give an understanding how can we achieve a virtuous life, without giving it a setting a rule book. My focus is to review what is discussed in his explanations on what is means to achieve happiness. This is an aspect that is discussed in the first book ‘The Good for Man’.
He is honored to be author of ‘The Nicomachean Ethics,’ which was in fact the 1st book ever written on the subject of ethics. The book is greatly influential, even in modern times. By an analysis of Aristotle’s literature, it can be observed that he primarily focused on preaching to be ‘virtuous’ rather than focusing on the theories of what ‘virtue’ is. According to him, in whatever way we choose to act, some action that is focused on achieving the desired end result or ‘good’ results comes from that person’s own perspective. Aristotle claimed that the maximum good which a person have desire to achieve is basically an end-point itself , a person’s action or struggles is for achieving that ‘end-point’, it may be regarded as a point of maximum satisfaction. Aristotle critically concluded that the happiness of a person satisfies these conditions completely, and hence the highest attainable good is regarded as happiness.
To Aristotle, ethics is not an exact science, it’s ruled by broad generalizations that work most of the time and are found with those of experience, the men of practical wisdom (Nicomachean Ethics, 1094b15-1095a10). We don’t need a focused study in the sciences to understand the good, all one needs is a proper understanding of how the external aspects of life: friendship, pleasure, honor, and wealth operate in concert. No aspects of friendship, pleasure, honor, and wealth ought to be practiced too much (excess) or too little (deficient); moral virtue is action performed between two extremes (Nic. Ethics, 1106b5-25). And it is by consultation that one may find the middle ground between excess and deficiency, The Golden Mean (Nic. Ethics, 1097b5-20; Nic. Ethics, 1104a10-25).
Aristotle believed that a person who has difficulty behaving ethically is morally imperfect. His ideal person practices the "golden mean of moderation." He believed that this moral virtue, of which happiness comes from, is a matter of avoiding extremes in behavior and finding the mean between them. Aristotle conceives happiness not primarily as an exercise of virtue in private or with friends, but as the exercise of virtue in governing an ideal state. Hence, a person who acts for his or her own well must also act for the good of all fellow citizens. Aristotle points out that honor, pleasure, and wealth are the things believed to make people happy. He stated that honor is superficial because it can be taken away at any moment. He said pleasure was enjoyable but that it is more an animal quality than human, and that wealth is merely a means to towards a greater good. He taught moderation, and that these three vices could be pursued but not as an all encompassing goal.