Nova Southeastern University
Wireless communication has become an indispensable tool in the world today. Most of the world is connected and as a result, we have been able to carry out multiple tasks in a short time leaving us spare time to engage in other activities that demand our attention. Wireless networks have gone through several developmental phases to offer the fast and efficient services that we have presently. In this paper, I discuss the various classifications of wireless networks, going into details about their unique characteristics and why most people and organizations opt for them instead of their wired counterparts.
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Kumar et al. , (2008) classify wireless networks into three taxonomical groups, namely: fixed networks, mobile access networks and ad hoc or mesh networks. The mobile access networks are further divided into the circuit multiplexing (e.g. GSM cellular network), centralized statistical multiplexing (e.g. CDMA cellular networks, IS 95, CDMA 2000, WCDMA and IEEE 802.16 WIMAX networks) and distributed statistical multiplexing (IEEE 802.11 WLANs) (Kumar et al. , 2008). Additionally, they classify ad hoc networks into the wireless Internets and sensor networks ( Kumar et al. , 2008).
Wheat, Hiser, Tucker, Neely and McCullough (2011) define fixed wireless networks as a technology which utilizes line-of-sight technology with both the transmitter and receiver at fixed locations (p. 159). The Fresnel zone within which the signals operate must be clear of any form of obstruction in order to avoid absorption and loss of signal strength. Wheat et al. , gives examples of fixed wireless technologies as Wireless Local Loop technologies, Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) and Point-to-Point Microwave.
Mobile wireless access networks have evolved from first generation, second generation, third generation, fourth generation and now fifth generation (Umar, 2004). Umar further states that first generation cellular systems used analogue transmission and were
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In the recent years, wireless technologies have taken a new dimension in the ways society lives. Wireless broadband is available to everyone. Whether the users are at home, driving the car, sitting in the park, and it would even work while people are a pleasure boat ride in the middle of a lake. And because of this, the need to have information at any time and be connected in all places, all the time has been satisfied.
A wireless communication technology is an aircraft or unmanned balloons . Semi- fixed and it works using solar energy to provide and operate the remote control , to cover a certain area , and payment platforms motorized pneumatic and electrical , put in a fixed to a certain height above the ground mode ( the stratosphere ) layer. Working at a height ranges from 17-22 km, and has been specifically designed to operate at high altitudes. Remote controling from the earth staion on the ground .
Wireless communication helps businesses more easily stay in touch with customers, suppliers, and employees and provides more flexible arrangements for organizing work. Wireless technology has also created new products, services, and sales channels. If one requires mobile communication and computing power or remote access to corporate systems, you can work with an array of wireless devices: cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and smart phones. Personal computers are also starting to be used in wireless transmission. Mobile laptop computers equipped with wireless network interface cards link to the wired LAN by communicating with the access point. The access point uses radio waves to transmit network signals from the wired network to the client adapters, which convert them into data that the mobile device can understand. The client adapter then transmits the data from the mobile device back to the access point, which forwards the data to the wired network.
The world of technology as we know it is now changing drastically. As the years progress new technology will replace the old. Individuals want faster services that are reliable. Wireless technology is going to be really important to have. It is already important in both the home and office sense. Wireless networks are already starting to replace Wired Networks. Nobody wants to have cables in their homes and offices anymore. The reason is simple and to the point: there isn’t a point to having long cables laying on the floor or having to make holes to push the cables in walls and through walls. The things that individuals and companies need to know is that Wireless Networks are catching up. The new technology that is coming out will make having a wireless network better than having a wired network. This will make having a wireless network a better choice to have than a wired network.
The increasing usage of networks especially wireless networks for different applications, has moved to focus towards the design and optimal routing of the networks in the modern life. The use of wireless networks instead of wired networks solves many issues in real life. These challenges includes the Mobility, signal fading, power and energy, data rate, security etc.
In this modern era, wireless communication has become a requisite need like water and electricity which is part of our personal as well as our professional life. When we talk about wireless communication, the first word which comes to our mind is Wi-Fi. It uses 2.4-5 GHz RF (radio frequency) to deliver internet access around a wide area. As more and more users are connected to the network, the rate of data transfer gets reduced. So when more people access wireless internet, airwaves gets clogged and it makes difficult to latch onto a reliable signal. Transmission of data is done using radio waves which is just one part of spectrum. We are totally dependent upon this very prevalent service. But it has also many
Wireless technology comes in many forms. “Wireless is a broad term that encompasses all sorts of technologies and devices that transmit data over the air, rather than over wires, including cellular communications, networking between computers with wireless adapters, and wireless computer accessories.” There are many ways wireless has enhanced the consumers’ lives along with improving business efficiency. Businesses have developed apps to build on their businesses. Some examples are mobile banking at their fingertips at all times. Starbucks mobile app allows you to have access to their menu and
Wireless, or cellular, networks have become one of the most common ways consumer’s access data in today’s world. This is quite interesting since the idea of having the ability to access the internet in any form, let alone having a consistent always on internet connection in the palm of your hand would have been something out of science fiction or James Bond not that long ago.
Wireless networks refer to those networks that make use of radio waves or microwaves in order to establish communication between the devices.
Connectivity and topology control: Some approaches tried to improve the system reliability by carefully designing the connectivity or topology of wireless networks. Paper  addresses the problem of fault tolerant deployment of wireless ad-hoc networks. Based on the pre-assumed transmission range, the authors propose a scheme to calculate the probability that a given network is k-connected. Based on the intensive deployment, the redundant sensor nodes are used to cope the random working nodes failure. Following the similar idea, a distributed algorithm is proposed in . By deploying calculated necessary number of extra nodes in the given network, the objective of fault-tolerant topology control can be achieved. However, due to the limited space and cost constraint, adding redundant nodes to a deployed WSN may not always be an acceptable solution. Another fault-tolerant topology control algorithm is presented by Li and Hou in , in which a spanning subgraph is computed by each node. If a pair of vertices is not k-connected, an extra edge will be added between these two vertices. The authors further prove that the resultant global network is k-connected. In , by considering the mobility of nodes, the author shows the mobility resilient topology control protocols. The author classifies the topology control protocols into two types. 1) In this case, the topology is built and maintained by each node based on its own knowledge about its neighbors. According to its own
Cellular network is a network where the last connection is wireless. In cellular network multiple low-power transmitters are used, with 100 W or less, thus, the spread range of such a transmitter is small, dividing an area into cells. A band of frequencies is allocated to each cell and each cell is served by a base station (BS), including of transmitter, receiver, and control unit. The base station provides wireless network coverage which can be used
One of the most promising and discussed technologies in the past decade is the wireless communication technology which allows each users to utilize devices that enable the access to information at any place any time. These demands make wireless communication networks the best solution for inter connect the devices and people worldwide. Unlike wired communication networks, which are comprised of devices that can communicate through wires, wireless networks are comprised of devices that communicate through media such as infra-red and radio signals. Wireless networks are generally classified into two categories: infrastructure-based and infrastructure less network (ad hoc wireless networks).
This paper provides an overview of wireless technologies which can be used in ad hoc scenarios, their limitations and applications involved in this mechanism.