Asked Dec 14, 2019

7) CRSPR-cas9 has revolutionized are ability to edit genomes. How hasthe CRSPR-cas9 system increased the efficiency of introducing mutations to mammalian genomes? 


Expert Answer

Step 1

Genome editing is a unique technology used to make specific changes to the cell’s DNA. It is a tool which precisely and efficiently cause mutation in the mammalian genome. CRISPR-cas9 is the promising tool in editing the human genome which includes removal, addition or alteration of DNA sequences.

Step 2

CRISPR is the short form of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats.  It is the family of sequences of DNA (20 base pairs long) present in prokaryotic organisms like bacteria and archaea. CRISPR consists of 50% bacterial genome sequences and 90% of archaea genome sequences.

Cas9 is the name of the enzyme which acts as a pair of molecular scissors.  It utilises the CRISPR sequences to identify and cleave specific DNA strands.

Thus the enzymes (cas9) with the sequences (CRISPR) is a unique technology, employed to edit the genome of the organisms. It will bring a change in the DNA which means it causes mutation in the DNA.

Step 3

The precise genome editing method is making use of HDR mechanism (Homology Directed Repair). This mechanism will make the insertion of DNA sequences in order to ...

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