Another researcher also decides to conduct a study to observe the association between smoking cessation among long-term smokers and obesity since it has been previously well documented in the literature that smokers tend to gain weight when they stop smoking. The researcher notes that among the individuals who gain weight, many of them have developed heart problems or other medical problems that typically prevent them from exercising as much as their counterparts. In this case the researcher notes that individuals who have developed the heart problems or other medical problems causing them to gain weight also came from family with a high prevalence of risk-taking behaviors, so they consume unhealthy diets and are less likely to exercise in general than their counterparts. This is an example of which of the following?  Confounding  Effect modification  Recall bias  Socially desirable response bias

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Asked Feb 27, 2020
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Another researcher also decides to conduct a study to observe the association between smoking cessation among long-term smokers and obesity since it has been previously well documented in the literature that smokers tend to gain weight when they stop smoking. The researcher notes that among the individuals who gain weight, many of them have developed heart problems or other medical problems that typically prevent them from exercising as much as their counterparts. In this case the researcher notes that individuals who have developed the heart problems or other medical problems causing them to gain weight also came from family with a high prevalence of risk-taking behaviors, so they consume unhealthy diets and are less likely to exercise in general than their counterparts. This is an example of which of the following?

   

Confounding

   

Effect modification

   

Recall bias

   

Socially desirable response bias

 
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Expert Answer

Step 1

Confounding variable – The variable which affects both dependent and independent variable is called the confounding variable

The given  scenario is the case of confounding variable in the experimental setup.

From the fact that the family with a high preva...

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