Question
Asked Feb 15, 2020
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Classify each reaction according to whether a precipitate forms.
 
Pricipitate forms                                         Precipitate does not form
 
 
 
 
 
AgNO3 + NaPO4
Mg(NO3)2 + NaCl
Pb(NO2)2+ NaClO4
NaNO3+NaCIO4
Mg(NO3)2+ NaOH
Fe(NO3)2 +Na2S
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Expert Answer

Step 1

Precipitate is a substance that is deposited in solid form from a solution, as it is insoluble in water.

During a chemical reaction in aqueous solution, when no precipitate is formed, this means that all the products formed are soluble in water.

During a chemical reaction in aqueous solution, when precipitate is formed, this means that all the products or either of the products is insoluble in water.

The reaction in which precipitate is formed is called precipitation reaction.

 

Whether or not such a reaction occurs can be determined by using the solubility rules for common ionic solids. Because not all aqueous reactions form precipitates, one must consult the solubility rules before determining the state of the products.

On the basis of the general solubility rules, precipitation that take place or not can be determined when two aqueous solutions are mixed.

The following are the solubility rules for common ionic solids:

  1. Salts containing Group I elements (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+) are soluble . There are few exceptions to this rule. Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble.
  2. Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) are generally soluble.
  3. Salts containing Cl -, Br -, or I - are generally soluble. Important exceptions to this rule are halide salts of Ag+, Pb2+, and (Hg2)2+ which are insoluble.
  4. Most silver salts are insoluble. AgNO3 and Ag(C2H3O2) are common soluble salts of silver; virtually all others are insoluble.
  5. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include CaSO4, BaSO4, PbSO4, Ag2SO4 and SrSO4 .
  6. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements are soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+ are insoluble. Thus, Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3, Co(OH)2 are not soluble.
  7. Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble, including CdS, FeS, ZnS, and Ag2S. Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead sulfides are also insoluble.
  8. Carbonates are frequently insoluble. Group II carbonates (CaCO3, SrCO3, and BaCO​3) are insoluble, as are FeCO3 and PbCO3.
  9. Chromates are frequently insoluble. Examples include PbCrO4 and BaCrO4.
  10. Phosphates are frequently insoluble.
  11. Fluorides such as BaF2, MgF2, and PbF2 are frequently insoluble.
  12. Most perchlorates are soluble in water.
Step 2

Given,

AgNO3 + Na3PO4 :

The balanced reaction can be written as :

AgNO3 + Na3PO4 → Ag3PO4 + NaNO3

Now, from the solubility rules, NaNO3 is soluble but Ag3PO4 is not soluble in aqueous medium. So, Ag3PO4 is in the precipitate form.

Hence, the reaction forms a precipitate.

 

Mg(NO3)2 + NaCl :

The balanced reaction can be written as :

Mg(NO3)2 + 2 NaCl → MgCl2 + 2 NaNO3

Now, from the solubility rules, both NaNO3 and MgCl2 are soluble in aqueous medium.

Hence, no precipitate is formed in this reaction.

 

Pb(NO2)2 + NaClO4 :

The balanced reaction can be written as :

Pb(NO2)2 + NaClO4 → Pb(ClO4)2 + NaNO2

Now, from the solubility rules, both NaNO2 and Pb(ClO4)2 are soluble in aqueous medium.

Hence, no precipitate is formed in this reaction.

 

NaNO3 + NaClO4 :

The balanced reaction can be written as :

NaNO3 + NaClO4 → NaClO4 + NaNO3

Now, from the solubility rules, both NaNO3 and NaClO4 are soluble in aqueous medium.

Hence, no precipitate is formed in this reaction.

 

Mg(NO3)2 + NaOH :

The balanced reaction can be writte...

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