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Asked Jan 17, 2020
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Bias in Clinical Trials? Researchers investigated the issue of race and equality of access to clinical trials. The following table shows the population distribution and the numbers of participants in clinical trials involving lung cancer (based on data from “Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials,” by Murthy, Krumholz, and Gross, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 291, No. 22). Use a 0.01 significance level to test the claim that the distribution of clinical trial participants fits well with the population distribution. Is there a race/ethnic group that appears to be very underrepresented?

White
Asian/Pacific American Indian/
Islander
Race/ethnicity
non-Hispanic
Hispanic
Black
Alaskan Native
Distribution of
Population
75.6%
9.1%
10.8%
3.8%
0.7%
Number in Lung
Cancer Clinical Trials
3855
60
316
54
12
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White Asian/Pacific American Indian/ Islander Race/ethnicity non-Hispanic Hispanic Black Alaskan Native Distribution of Population 75.6% 9.1% 10.8% 3.8% 0.7% Number in Lung Cancer Clinical Trials 3855 60 316 54 12

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Expert Answer

Step 1

The claim is that the participants in the clinical trial agree with the population distribution. The trial is conducted for five groups of people and the proportion for having lung cancer in the whole population is given.

The hypotheses are given below:

Statistics homework question answer, step 1, image 1
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Step 2

The test statistic is calculated by the formula,

Here, O represents the observed frequency and E represents the expected frequency.

Statistics homework question answer, step 2, image 1
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Step 3

Methods for finding Expected frequency:

Condition 1: If all the expected frequencies are equal, then E=n/k

Condition 2: If the expected frequencies are not equal, then E=np  for each category.

Where, n is the total number of frequencies, k is the categories and p is the probability of occurrence.

Here, wh...

Statistics homework question answer, step 3, image 1
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Hypothesis Testing

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